Question1 of 30Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of uniformitarianism?All rocks are created in a continuous, uninterrupted and gradual sequence.Older strata generally are deposited on younger strata without intervening, intermediate age strata.Earth’s topography has been shaped by sudden, catastrophic events.Physical, chemical and biological processes operate today as they have in the pastQuestion2 of 30A _____________ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.hypothesisgeneralizationlawtheoryQuestion3 of 30__________ rocks always originate at the surface of the Earth.SecondaryIgneousSedimentaryMetamorphicQuestion4 of 30In correct order from the center outward, Earth’s layers include:core, inner mantle, outer mantle, crustinner core, outer core, mantle, crustinner core, crust, mantle, hydrospherecore, crust, mantle, hydrosphereQuestion5 of 30Which of the following statements is not correct?Metamorphic rocks form from a magma.Sedimentary rocks may weather to form other sedimentary rocks.Magmas crystallize to form igneous rocks.Igneous rocks can undergo metamorphism.Question6 of 30The composition of the mantle of Earth is thought to be _____.basaltsolid iron-nickel alloyperidotitegabbroQuestion7 of 30The ________ is the thinnest layer of Earth.outer coremantlecrustasthenosphereQuestion8 of 30The relatively stable interior portion of a continent is known as a _____.cratonplatformshelfbeltQuestion9 of 30Active mountain belts are most likely to be found the interior of continentsalong the northern margins of continentsrandomly scattered throughout continentsalong the margins of continentsQuestion10 of 30I see crossbedding forming in the dunes of the modern world’s deserts. I find crossbedding in the rocks of Zion National Park and I decide that those rocks formed in a large dune field. I have used the Principle of _______________ to make that decision.CatastrophismUniformitarianismSuperpositionParadigmsQuestion11 of 30The Earth is _______ years old.4.5 million10 billion4.5 billion5,000Question12 of 30Oceanic crust is __________ continental crust.less dense thandenser thanabout the same density asof more variable density thanQuestion13 of 30Water does not classify as a mineral because it liquiddoes not have a defined chemical compositionis never moltenis found in plantsQuestion14 of 30Which of the following would not be a crystal?broken chunk of quartzsix-sided rubygranitecube of haliteQuestion15 of 30On the Mohs Scale of Hardness, the softest mineral isgypsumtalcdiamonddiatomiteQuestion16 of 30Which of the following is an accurate description of ionic bonding?Nuclei of bonding atoms exchange electrons; the resulting ions are bonded together by the attractive forces between the negative and positive nucleons.Atoms of two different elements share electrons and protons; the resulting compound is bonded together by the strong, binding energy of shared protons.Nuclei of two different atoms share electrons, and the resulting compound is tightly bonded by the very strong, induced, electronuclear bonds.Atoms of different elements, having gained or lost electrons, form negative and positive ions that are bonded together by attractive forces between ions with opposite charges.Question17 of 30Which of the following describes a mineral’s tendency to split along smooth, parallel planes of atomic weakness?diaphaneitycleavagetenacityfractureQuestion18 of 30Which of the following best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates?They contain iron and magnetite, are black in color, and they have metallic lusters.They are black to dark-green and contain iron and magnesium.They are mostly clear, colorless, and rich in the element calcium and magnesium.They contain magnetite and hematite and are rusty red.Question19 of 30Which one of the following is an abundant product of weathering?amphibolesfeldsparsclayshaliteQuestion20 of 30Granite is an example of a/an ______________ igneous rock.phaneriticvesicularaphaniticfoliatedQuestion21 of 30A magma cools for a long time beneath the Earth’s surface and then flows in a volcanic eruption. A ______________ igneous rock will result.schistosepolymorphicporphyriticcompositeQuestion22 of 30The intrusive rock ________ has the same chemical composition and mineralogy as the extrusive rock ____________.granite, rhyolitebasalt, gabbroandesite, dioritepumice, obsidianQuestion23 of 30A rock that will float in water isobsidiangneisstuffpumiceQuestion24 of 30If the oceanic crust of the Earth cracks, the rocks below may _____.melt due to decompressionshrink in volumeinstantly explode due to exposurenot change in consistencyQuestion25 of 30The presence of water causes _____.slowing of crystallizationrocks to melt at lower temperaturesporphyritic texturesraising of rocks’ melting temperaturesQuestion26 of 30Bowen’s Reaction Series indicates that amphibole and an intermediate composition plagioclase feldspar crystallize earlier from a cooling magma, while quartz and potassium feldspar crystallize later. If an igneous rock containing these four minerals is heated to a temperature at which melting begins, _____.all four minerals will melt at the same temperaturethe amphibole and plagioclase feldspar will start melting before the other mineralsthe quartz and potassium feldspar will start melting before the other mineralsamphibole and quartz will melt first, then the feldsparsQuestion27 of 30The incorporation of host rock into a magma is called _____.migmatismassimilationmagmatic differentiationstarvingQuestion28 of 30Magmas that produce stratovolcanoes are _____.high in silica and viscoushigh in silica and fluidlow in silica and viscouslow in silica and fluidQuestion29 of 30The Hawaiian Islands are a chain of _____.stratovolcanoeslava domesshield volcanoesfissure flowsQuestion30 of 30An igneous intrusion that resembles the filling in a layer cake is called a _____.silldikestockbatholiths

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