PH YSIC AL G EOGR AP HY GP H1 11 LAB C – GEOGRAPHIC GRID AND TIME Introductio n In this lab the student will le arn to determ ine latitude and l ongitude, to plot the location of various places on a geographic grid, and to ca lculate th e difference in tim e between various locations on the globe. Materials n eeded: atlas, pencil and calculator Part I. Geographic Grid – Latitud e and Longitud e Latitud e is d istan ce m easured in deg rees North or South of the Equator. Lines connecting points of equal latitud e are term ed paralle ls. The horizontal lines on a globe, each para llel to the others, represents one axis of our earthly grid system . The Equator is the base parall el and assigned a value of 0° . All other parallel s are assigned som e value, up to 90°, North or South of the Equator. Longitude is distance m easured in degrees East or W est of the Prim e Meridian. Lines connecting points of equal longitude are term ed meridians . The vertical lines on a gl obe represent a second axis on our earthly grid system . The Prime Meridian , which passes through Greenw ich, England , is the base m eridian and assigned a value of 0° . All m eridia ns, except th e Prim e Merid ian an d the Intern ational Date Line (180°) are ass igned a value Eas t or W est of t he Prim e Meridian. Any spot on the Earth’ s surface can b e identified with a set of coordinate s based on latitude and longitude. In Figure C-1, Paris , France is lo cated 48° N orth of the Equator and 2° E ast of the Prime Meridian. Figure C-1: Latitud e and Longitude C-1 PH YSIC AL G EOGR AP HY GP H1 11 A. Answer the follo wing questions using Figure C-2: The Geographic Grid. 1. Mark in the values of all of the unlabelled parallels and m eridians. 2. W hat is the interva l between parallels on this grid? __________ 3. W hat is the interva l between m eridians on this grid?__________ 4. Are these intervals sta ndard for all world m aps? ___________ 5. W hy isn’t the 180 th m eridian labeled East or W est? ___________________________ ___________________________________________________________ __________ Figure C-2: The Geographic Grid 90° W 0° 90° E 180° 90° N 0° 30° S 90°W 0° 90°E B. Using Figure C-2 – The Geographic Grid (above ), draw in and label the following parallels and m eridians: (Hint: see page 11 of your textbook.) Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn Arctic Circle Antarctic Circle Prim e Merid ian Intern ational Date Line Equator C-2 PH YSIC AL G EOGR AP HY GP H1 11 C. Using an atlas, determ ine the latitude and long itude of the following cities. Give latitude & longitud e to the neares t degree . CITIES LATITUDE LONGITUDE 1. Tokyo, Japan _______________ _______________ 2. Beijing, China _______________ _______________ 3. Los Angeles, CA, U.S.A. _______________ _______________ 4. Johannesburg, South Africa _______________ _______________ 5. Honolulu, HI, U.S.A. _______________ _______________ 6. Melbourne, Australia _______________ _______________ 7. New York, NY, U.S.A. _______________ _______________ 8. Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam _______________ _______________ 9. Phoenix, AZ, U.S.A. _______________ _______________ 10. Plot each location on Figure C-2: The Geographic Grid D. Using an atlas or available wall m aps, answer the following questions: 1. Nam e the three South Am erican countries located along the Equator. 2. Nam e at least four As ian countries located along the Tropic of Cancer? 3. Nam e the four South Am erican countries located along the Tropic of Capricorn . 4. Identify the three Europ ean countries located along the Prim e Meridian. 5. What are the five African countries that the Prim e Meridian passes through? 6. List three countri es and two continents through which the 180 th m eridian passes. E. Na me the countries at the following coordinates: 1. 60 ° N, 100 ° W ______________ 7. 18 ° S, 45 ° E ______________ 2. 30 ° N, 30 ° E ______________ 8. 23 ° N, 75 ° E ______________ 3. 63 ° N, 15 ° E ______________ 9. 30 ° S, 30 ° E ______________ 4. 0 ° , 32 ° E ______________ 10. 25 ° S, 135 ° E ______________ 5. 10 ° S, 75 ° W ______________ 11. 43 ° N, 11 ° E ______________ 6. 45 ° N, 105 ° E ______________ 12. 10 ° N, 84 ° W ______________ C-3 PH YSIC AL G EOGR AP HY GP H1 11 Part II. Tim e and Ti me Zones The daily rotation of the Earth on its axis caus es the Sun to ap pear to p ass from east to west over the 360° surface of the Earth in one 2 4 hour perio d. Therefore, in one ho ur, the Sun appears to pass over 1/24th of this 360° surface , or 15 degrees of longitude. W ith the developm ent of aircraft, travel between cities and various parts of the globe has becom e much faster. It is now possible to conduct busin ess in person on two continents in one day and, with telecommunications, to condu ct business around the w orld from one’ s office. In order to accom plish any of the above, one must know how to calcu late the difference in tim e between two locations. To assist in this task, the world is divided into 24 one-hour tim e zones. Agreem ent was reached on this zon e system by the United States and leading European nation s during an 1884 conference held in Washingt on, D C. The baseline for this system was established at the P rim e Meridian, an im aginary line designated 0 degrees that passes through the observatory at Greenwich, Engla nd. At a location 180 degrees di stant from the Prime Meridian, the International Date Line was established, an im aginary line th at determ ines where one 24 hour day ends and another begins. Essentially, as one moves east from the Prim e Meridi an (o r a ny m eridian ), time is ad vanced one hour for each 15 deg rees of longitude. Movin g w est, time is subtracted an equal am ount. If one crosses the International Date Line from the east longitudes to the w est longitudes , the date becom es one day earlier ( subtract o ne day ). Crossing the Interna tiona l Date Line f rom the we st longitudes to the east longitudes , the date becom es one day later ( add one day ). Using this inform ation, answer the following questions. Show all work for each problem . A. Calculate the tim e difference (rounded o ff in hours) between Greenwich, England and Portland, Maine (longitudinal data needs to be obtained from an atlas). B. Calculate the tim e difference (rounded off in hour s) between Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam and Melbourne, Australia. C-4 PH YSIC AL G EOGR AP HY GP H1 11 C. Calculate the tim e difference between Los Angele s, California and Tokyo, Japan. If it is 2 p.m . Tuesday, February 1 in Los Angeles, what tim e/day/date is it in Tokyo? D. All the m anual calculations perf orm ed in problem s A-C can be avoided by using a tim e zone m ap such as that found on page xii of Goode’s W orld Atlas 20th edition . Using this m ap, check answers for questions A, B a nd C. Does the atlas s upport the calculations? Now, answer the following questions with this m ap. 1. W hy doe s the continental United States have four tim e zones? 2. China presently uses one tim e zone, t hough it occupies th e geograph ic space of four. How is this explain ed? Hint: Review infor mation in your textbook. 3. Notice that the International D ate Line is n ot a straigh t line. W hy the devia tion ? E. Assum e a business person in New York C ity is scheduled to fly to T okyo, Japan for a m ajor conference. The travel agent books a direct flight leavi ng JFK International Airport a t 2 p.m . W ednesday. If the f light tim e is 15 hours, what tim e and day will this person arrive in T okyo? C-5
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