Criminology assignment:800 words (+/- 10% leeway)All instructions and template provided.
Criminology assignment: 800 words (+/- 10% leeway) All instructions and template provided.
Running head: SITUATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION STRATEGIES 0 Situational Crime Prevention Strategies Name of Author Class Professor School City/State Date Username: wfatima Pw: Hmcgt2s! Essay Plan Increasing situational crime prevention strategies can be the best way that can be adopted and be implemented to address and reduce crimes in the streets. This paper will address some of the situational crime prevention strategies that can be used to reduce criminal activities in the streets. According to Welsh and Farrington (2012), the situational crime prevention strategies theories are based on the assumption that for the crime to occur in the streets, there has to be an opportunity for committing the crime, there is a motivated offender, and there is the absence of a guardian. Therefore, this paper will address some of the ways through which increased situational crime prevention strategies that reduce the number of reported crimes on the streets. The three common ways of implementing situational crime preventing are through: Targeting the underlying causes of the crime. Targeting to deter potential offenders from committing crimes by ensuring that the cost of committing the crime is greater than the benefits accrued from the crime. Finally, situational crime prevention targets to increase the difficulty of committing the crime by eliminating the available chances of committing the crime (Welsh & Farrington 2012). Involves modifying the physical environment such that committing crimes in the streets seems more difficult. This article will also outline other strategies that can be used to reduce if not to eliminate crimes on the streets. These strategies include Developmental crime prevention, which considers crimes to be influenced by attitudes and behaviors that people acquire as they grow, community prevention, which may be a combination of the situational and developmental strategies, and criminal justice prevention, which comprises the traditional deterrent and rehabilitative strategies that are driven by the law enforcement agencies and the criminal justice system agencies. Crime in the Streets Introduction Crimes have been a common phenomenon for a very long time. Despite the measures that many state and federal governments have enacted, it has been very difficult to get rid of this menace completely. This is because the risk factors to the criminal activities tend to persist within the communities involuntarily, fostering the possibility of the crimes to reoccur in the near future. One of the most effective strategies that have been suggested to be used for preventing crimes is situational crime prevention strategies. Situational crime prevention strategies are the strategies that crime prevention agencies like law enforcement courts, the police, among other agencies use to effectively understand where, when, and how the crimes are committed (Näsi, Aaltonen, & Kivivuori 2016, p.178). This helps to reduce the possibilities of the crime being committed, rather than waiting for the crime to be committed and arresting the criminals. This paper discusses how an increase in situational crime prevention strategies could be a vital step towards reducing crimes. The paper will also outline how can be used to prevent crimes in the streets. Situational Crime Prevention Strategies One of the ways through which situational crime prevention strategies can be used to reduce crimes is through targeting the underlying causes of the crime. According to Palmer, de Lint, and Dalton (2016), some of the causes of crimes on the streets include the high levels of unemployment, poverty, and lack of a supportive society are some of the causes of cries on the street. Therefore, when people view opportunities they can use to earn a living, they may take it. For example, a luxurious sports car parked on the streets at night where there are no security cameras increases the likelihood of crimes in the streets. This could lead to car break-ins and theft of the car. Therefore, a situational crime prevention strategy would target to prevent such “easy” crimes by suggesting parking the car in a garage rather than the streets to conceal or remove the target. Such a move would eliminate the target of the crime, thus reducing the possibility of the crime being committed. Another way would be to keep people busy and preoccupied. Allocating people jobs where they can have a source of income would help improve their living standards (Williams 2012). For example, those people found on the streets can be trained and assigned to jobs that occur frequently within communities like plumbing and electrical works. This will help to address the underlying causes of the crimes, thus preventing the crimes on the streets as the people will not indulge in crimes on the streets to earn a living. The other way through which situational crime prevention strategies can be used to prevent crimes in the streets is by deterring potential offenders from committing crimes by ensuring that the cost of committing the crime is greater than the benefits obtained from the crime. The act of committing the crime should be made to be difficult, risky, and less rewarding to the criminal (Bruinsma & Weisburd 2014). This will reduce the possibility of the criminal committing the crime on the streets. For example, the presence of CCTV cameras around all corners of the street, the absence of obstacles blocking the line of sight, and formal surveillance by security agencies increase the likelihood of being caught committing crimes, thus lowers the reward from petty crimes on the streets. Fisher (2010) further adds that refusing to buy stolen goods from the people who seem suspicious and live on the streets will reduce the benefits of committing crimes on the streets. This will have played a major role in reducing crimes on the streets as stolen goods will not be marketable. Finally, situational crime prevention strategies can be used to reduce crimes committed in the streets is by increasing the difficulty of committing the crime by eliminating the available chances of committing the crime (Findlay, Odgers, and Yeo 2014). This can be achieved through several strategies. For instance, criminals in the streets may utilize the absence of surveillance on the streets to commit crimes. Therefore, situational crime prevention strategies can help eliminate such opportunities that are utilized by criminals. For example, increasing formal surveillance by private security guards, surveillance cameras like CCTVs, and installing electronic alarm systems would reduce the opportunities utilized to commit crimes (Estrada 2019, p.39). Crimes are also committed when there are obstacles affecting the line of sight in the streets. Therefore, any obstacle that affects the line of sight should be removed to reduce the opportunities being seized by the criminals to commit crimes. The CDC (2020) outlines the importance of shaping individual behaviors as well as the relationship, societal factors, and the community, that influence risk and protective factors for crimes and violence. The tools used to commit crimes like guns and spray paints should also be made inaccessible to prevent them from being easily accessible and used to commit crimes. These ways, crimes can be prevented before they occur. Other Crime Prevention Strategies Developmental Crime Prevention Strategy Developmental crime prevention is the strategy that considers crimes to be influenced by attitudes and behaviors that people acquire as they grow (Welsh & Farrington 2012, p.11). This makes the early life experiences that children face playing a major influence in shaping their later experiences. For example, children raised in the streets where they can see adults committing crimes and getting away with them to commit the same offenses later in their lives. The intervention strategies later are likely to be costly and complicated. Prevention strategies like improved living standards in deprived neighborhoods, intellectual enrichment programs, and helping children develop positive behavioral elements could help reduce crimes in the community. Community Crime Prevention Strategies Community prevention strategies are considered to be a community-based strategy combining situational and developmental strategies (Welsh & Farrington 2012, p.11). The community-based crime prevention strategies are intended to alter the social institutions and conditions that may cause an individual to indulge in crimes on the streets. For example, giving shopping or food vouchers to members of low socio-economic status so that they can afford to live better lives or move to better areas. Criminal Justice Crime Prevention Criminal justice prevention, which comprises the traditional deterrent and rehabilitative strategies that are driven by the law enforcement agencies and the criminal justice system agencies. According to Welsh and Farrington, “It was becoming readily apparent among researchers and public officials alike that a criminal justice response on its own was insufficient for the task of reducing crime” (Welsh & Farrington 2012, p.12). The community could play a vital role in implementing criminal justice crime prevention strategies. Courts, prisons, and law enforcement could depend on the communities to help in reducing crimes by observing the situational crime prevention strategies. Conclusion In summary, I have argued that increasing situational crime prevention strategies can help prevent crimes in the streets by addressing the causes of the crime, ensuring that the cost of committing the crime is greater than the benefits obtained from the crime, and increasing the difficulty of committing the crime by eliminating the available chances of committing the crime. Other strategies that can be used to reduce crimes include developmental crime prevention, community crime prevention, and criminal justice crime prevention strategies. The situational crime prevention strategies are more effective as they help prevent the crimes before they happen, as compared to other methods like the criminal justice crime prevention strategies which may be applicable after the crime has been committed. I would thus like to convince the reader that situational crime prevention strategies are more effective and should be implemented to ensure the streets are crime-free. References Bruinsma, G., and Weisburd, D., 2014. Encyclopedia of criminology and criminal justice. Springer Reference. CDC.gov. 2020. Preventing Youth Violence. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 23 April 2020]. Estrada, F., 2019. Youth and Crime in a Welfare State. Trends, Inequalities, and Societal Response. In Policing Schools: School Violence and the Juridification of Youth (pp. 33-51). Springer, Cham. Findlay, M., Odgers, S., and Yeo, S.M., 2014. The Australian Criminal Justice System. Fisher, B.S. ed., 2010. Encyclopedia of victimology and crime prevention (Vol. 1). Sage. Näsi, M., Aaltonen, M., and Kivivuori, J., 2016. Youth hate crime offending: the role of strain, social control, and self-control theories. Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 17(2), pp.177-184. Palmer, D., de Lint, W., and Dalton, D., 2016. Crime and justice: A guide to criminology. Thomson Reuters Legal Australia. Welsh, B. C., & Farrington, D. P. (2012). Crime prevention and public policy. The Oxford handbook of crime prevention, 3-19. Williams, K.S., 2012. Textbook on criminology. Oxford University Press, USA.




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