1. Johari’s Window (ATTACHED BELOW)
Review the PowerPoint presentation attached.

What is Johari’s window?  Describe the model and how it works in one to two pages.  
Now assume you are working with a team to improve its effectiveness. Construct and describe a team development exercise based on the principles of Johari’s window to improve team communication. In constructing your exercise keep in mind what we know about feedback, disclosure, and insight from the window.
2. Implementing Self-Direction Review the PowerPoint Presentation “Preparing for Self-Directed Work Teams” and the notes for PowerPoint 2 — answer the following questions. (ATTACHED BELOW)

What factors might affect the times required in each stage?

What types of training would be required for any self-directed team conversion, regardless of the product?

Can anyone be trained and coached to be an effective team member?Johari’s Window
COS 4880
Productive Work Teams
What is Johari’s Window?
 A tool for understanding and training self awareness,
personal development, improving communications,
interpersonal relationships, and group dynamics.
 Developed by American psychologists Joseph Luft and
Harry Ingham in the 1950’s, calling it ‘Johari’ after
combining their first names, Joe and Harry
Model of Self Awareness
 Sometimes referred to as a ‘disclosure/feedback
model of self awareness’, and an ‘information
processing tool‘
 Represents information – feelings, experience, views,
attitudes, skills, intentions, motivation, etc – within or
about a person – in relation to their team, from four
perspectives
The Window
 Open area – What we know about ourselves and is
also known by others
 Blind area – What others know about me that I am
unaware of
 Hidden area – What I know about myself that others
do not know.
 Unknown – What I don’t know about myself and is
also unknown to others.
Johari’s Window
OPEN AREA
HIDDEN
AREA
BLIND
AREA
UNKNOWN
What We Know
 It takes energy to keep information about ourselves
hidden.
 In general, feedback and self disclosure increase the
size of the open pane resulting in more honest and
productive group communication.
 Forced disclosure increases anxiety and increases the
energy consumed in maintaining the hidden area.
What We Know
 Activity in any of the panes alters the other panes of
the window.
 The size of each window is flexible. When new to a
team or group the size of the open window is very
small. Team members don’t know much about us. As
we become more comfortable with the team, the size
of the open area increases while the hidden and blind
areas decrease.
What We Know
 Teamwork is limited to information that is available in
the open area.
 Working on feedback and self disclosure is key to
successful teamwork.
 Successful teams work on two levels – what is our task
or function and how are we working together as a
team.
Self Disclosure
OPEN AREA
HIDDEN
AREA
BLIND
AREA
UNKNOWN
Self Disclosure
 As teams develop, the “open” area is expanded
through self-disclosure.
 Knowing more about each team member improves
the comfort level of the team and awareness of what
motivates each member.
 Self disclosure can minimize misunderstandings,
distrust and confusion.
Feedback
OPEN AREA
HIDDEN
AREA
BLIND
AREA
UNKNOWN
Feedback
 Feedback helps us to understand things that we don’t
know about ourselves that others see.
 Feedback can improve our effectiveness by helping us
to become more self aware.
 Feedback can help us to understand why others react
to us the way they do.
Insight
OPEN AREA
HIDDEN
AREA
BLIND
AREA
UNKNOWN
Insight
 One of the least understood aspects of self-disclosure
and feedback is that it creates opportunities for
insights. As energy consumed in maintaining the
hidden are is freed, and the size of the blind and
hidden panes decreases, it becomes possible to move
things from the unknown to the open area.
Johari’s Window
 Keep the window in mind as you ….
 Learn about the stages of group development
 Negotiate rules for your team
 Plan your team activities and work
Preparing for Self-Directed
Work Teams
COS 4880
Bruce K. Barnard
Self-Directed Work Team

A highly trained group of 6-18 people
 Responsible for turning out finished work
 A wide-range of cross functional skills
 Access to information to make decisions
 Plan, set priorities, organize, coordinate,
measure and take corrective action.
 Solve problems, schedule and assign work.
 Make personnel decisions.
Results
 Xerox
— increased productivity by 30%
 Proctor & Gamble — 30-40% better
productivity in team-based plants
 Tektronix — teams reduced product
assembly from 14 days to 3 days
 General Motors – 20-40% better
productivity in team-based plants
So Let’s Get Started!
 Will
self-direction work here?
 What is required to support a selfdirected work team?
Feasibility
 Are
the work processes compatible with
self-direction?
 Shared
technology, territory, & time
 What goods and services are produced?
 How are they produced? (automation,
interpersonal involvement)
Feasibility
 Are
employees willing and able to make
self-direction work?
Can each member perform at least 80% of
the required tasks, including administrative
functions?
 Do members have a capacity for problemsolving and interpersonal relationships
 Do members have the capacity to manage
the ambiguity of the start-up phase?

Feasibility
 Can
managers handle the hands-off
leadership style required?
 Will
they permit autonomy and provide the
necessary information?
 Do they encourage employee involvement
now?
 Will they support the move to self-directed
work teams?
Feasibility
 Is
the market healthy or promising
enough to support improved productivity
without reducing the workforce?
Feasibility
 Will
the organization’s policies and
culture support the transition to teams?
 Beware
and “us versus them” mentality or
efficiency at the expense of job
satisfaction.
 Multi-level communication
 The switch to teams requires strong
support from corporate or upper
management.
Feasibility
 Will
the community support the
transition to teams?
 Teams
may clash with values and strong
held beliefs.
 Employees are members of the community
first and teams second.
 Family support is critical
Stages

Start-up
 State of confusion
 Leader-centered
team

Tightly formed
teams
 Self-directed teams

Optimism
 Role upheaval
 Reliance on team
leader
 Fierce loyalty to
team
 Cooperative self
managment
Stages
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Stage Stage Stage
1
3
5

mgrs.
team
As we move through
the stages
responsibility
gradually shifts from
managers to the
team.
Stages
 Managers
must be prepared for a longterm process of transferring authority to
the team
 The organization must be willing to
invest in the required training
 Planning should include operations,
social aspects, and communication.
Stages
 Prior
to implementation, organizations
should think through tasks traditionally
considered management
responsibilities.
 Compensation
 Performance
review
 Planning
 New
product development
Stage One (Start-Up)
 The
goal is preparation, preparing the
field for planting.
Stage One (Start-Up)
 Conduct
awareness training, what they
are and what they aren’t.
 Select members
 Align the method of production with the
way people work.
 We must establish trust BEFORE we
will get “buy-in”.
Stage One (Start-Up)
 Boundaries
 Teams
have a clear sense of identity
 Harmonize team efforts with the
organization
 Ensure accountability
 Ensure compliance with specification
requirements, fiscal, and legal mandates.
Stage One (Start-Up)
 Training
for managers
 Training for team members
 Technical
skills
 Administrative skills
 Interpersonal skills
 Group process awareness
Stage One (Start-Up)
 Involve
the team in the start-up process!
 Build a culture of experimentation,
measurement, & re-evaluation
 Stage one lasts 6-9 months.
Stage Two (State of
Confusion)
 The
goal is regulated growth, building a
solid root structure to support later
growth.
Stage Two (State of
Confusion)
 Members
will naturally mourn the loss of
certain predictable events and
expectations, “we have always done it
this way”.
 Concerns about job security.
 Will it really work?
Stage Two (State of
Confusion)
 Managers
need to be visible during
stage two.
 Encourage
reorganization for selfmanagement
 Monitor team performance and benchmark
 Hand off new responsibilities as soon as
the team is ready
 Facilitate communication among teams
and provide education to others.
Stage Two (State of
Confusion)
 Hazards
of stage two
 Managers
who won’t let go
 Managers who are hoping the team will
collapse
 Managers who won’t get involved
Stage Two (State of
Confusion)
 Offer
technical assistance
 Positive feedback
 Do the teams have the information they
need?
 Are procedures in place to support selfdirection?
 Access to training and consultation
 Stage two lasts 6-9 months
Stage Three (LeaderCentered Teams)
 Goal,
focus on the outcome and
develop an identity. Nurture the plant
until it is capable of adapting to its
conditions and sustaining its own
growth .
Stage Three (LeaderCentered Teams
 Members
take more of an interest in the
quality of their product or service.
 Team members may begin to challenge
managers.
 Teams are assigning work and
organizing themselves.
 Managers take more of an external role.
Stage Three (LeaderCentered Teams)
 Team
leaders may be appointed or
elected, team input is critical.
 Leadership may rotate
 Team leaders must accept the goal of
self-direction. Their mission is to guide
the team towards autonomy.
Stage Three (LeaderCentered Teams
 Build
team identity
 Promote a vision
 Recognition and rewards
 Encourage leadership activities among
all team members
 Stage three lasts 6-12 months.
Stage Four (Tightly Formed
Teams)
 Goal,
begin to look outward. Pollination
and flowering requires relationships with
other plants and sustenance from
outside sources.
Stage Four (Tightly Formed
Teams)
 Teams
may turn inward and become
self-absorbed
 They actively resolve conflicts
 They manage their own production
 They communicate regarding resources
and goals
Stage Four (Tightly Formed
Teams)
 Maintain
communication with
management
 Integrate the team with other teams and
the rest of the organization
 Increase information about performance
 Manager to team – not manager to
team member
 Stage four lasts 6-12 months
Stage Five (Self-Direction)
 Goal,
link the team’s work directly to the
outcome of the organization.
Stage Five (Self-Direction)
 Continue
to respond to training needs.
 Build team-friendly systems
 Focus on external customer needs and
expectations
Stage Five (Self-Direction)
 Focus
on the work process, issue, or
behavior not on the person.
 Maintain the self-confidence and selfesteem of others.
 Maintain strong partnerships with
internal and external customers
 Improve and lead by example

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