Hello please see the attached documents.
Hello please see the attached documents.
HUM/115 v9 #1(WEEK 3)- In the first 2 weeks of this course, you learned about factors that can influence the effectiveness of critical thinking. This week, you learn about the effects of social errors, biases, and fallacies. These elements are helpful in persuasion. After completing the Learning Activities for the week, please respond to all the questions below. Your response should be a minimum of 175 words total (approx. 50 words per question). Review the Four Social Errors and Biases presented in Ch. 4 of THiNK: Critical Thinking and Logic Skills for Everyday Life. Which of the social errors/biases in the book are you most affected by? How can you overcome this social error/bias? Ch. 5 describes fallacies (when an argument seems to be correct but isn’t). What is one fallacy you have personally used or seen in an argument? Discuss how critical thinking skills will make you less likely to be influenced by arguments that are based on fallacies and faulty reasoning. Reflect on the learning activities, concepts, ideas, and topics covered this week. What is the most interesting activity or concept you learned this week? Mention any concepts that are still a bit confusing to you or that you have questions about. *****RESPOND IN 175 WORDS. #2(WEEK 4)- Every day we engage in arguments. This is another instance where defining our words is important. When we talk about critical thinking, the “arguments” we refer to are not the conflicts or squabbles we have with others in daily interactions. In critical thinking, arguments are acts of persuading others about the value of an action or point of view. Whether we want to convince someone to join our view, or they want us to agree with them, the exchange, or argument, is a place where the use of critical thinking is beneficial. After completing the Learning Activities for the week, please respond to all the questions below. Your response should be a minimum of 175 words total (approx. 50 words per question). Describe two factors we should consider when evaluating an argument (discussed in Ch. 6 of THiNK: Critical Thinking and Logic Skills for Everyday Life.) Why are they important? After reading Ch. 7 and 8 in THiNK: Critical Thinking and Logic Skills for Everyday Life, how would you describe, in your own words, the differences between inductive and deductive arguments? Reflect on the learning activities, concepts, ideas, and topics covered this week. What is the most interesting activity or concept you learned this week? Mention any concepts that are still a bit confusing to you or that you have questions on. *****RESPOND IN 175 WORDS. Arguments Review both the pro and con argument articles ATTACHED on facial recognition and then answer the following questions (your response to each question should be 50 words long): Identify the author and source (publisher) of the pro facial recognition article (using link provided above). Do you think this author/source is credible? Why or why not? (Hint: Review the author’s background, authority, etc.) What is one reason (premise) the author gives for supporting his conclusion that facial recognition software is beneficial and necessary? What evidence, statistics and/or outside sources does he provide to support this reason? Identify the author and source (publisher) of the con facial recognition article (using link provided above). Do you think this author/source is credible? Why or why not? What is one reason (premise) the author gives for supporting his conclusion that facial recognition software can be detrimental and needs to be put on hold for now? What evidence, statistics and/or outside sources does he provide to support this reason? Which of these articles do you feel met all the criteria of a strong argument (clear, relevant, credible, complete, and sound) and why (explain how the article meets each criteria in your response)? After reviewing and analyzing both articles, what do you think is the value of understanding multiple viewpoints before forming an opinion or argument? Copyright 2020 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
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Farhad Manjoo May 17, 2019 The New York Times The New York Times Company Editorial 1,487 words (Level 4) 1220LFull Text: “We might still decide, at a later time, to give ourselves over to cameras everywhere. But let’s not jump into an all-seeing futurewithout understanding the risks at hand.”Farhad Manjoo is an opinion columnist with the New York Times . In the following viewpoint, Manjoo cautions against using facialrecognition technology. He contends that it poses serious risks to privacy and civil rights, especially as it has been used by lawenforcement to investigate criminal activity. Manjoo cites the findings of researchers at Georgetown University in Washington, DC, toillustrate these fears. According to the author, studies have identified instances of flagrant misuse of facial recognition technology bylaw enforcement to locate and arrest individuals suspected of criminal activity. Manjoo posits that, while facial recognition technologymay hold some benefits, its use should be carefully regulated.As you read, consider the following questions: Why is the author concerned about ongoing plans for the use of facial recognition technology in Detroit, Michigan?1. Do you share the author’s concerns about the increased use of camera surveillance technology by law enforcement agencies?2. Why or why not?In your opinion, what types of restrictions on law enforcement’s use of facial recognition technology would be appropriate?3. Explain your answer.What are we going to do about all the cameras? The question keeps me up at night, in something like terror.Cameras are the defining technological advance of our age. They are the keys to our smartphones, the eyes of tomorrow’sautonomous drones and the FOMO engines that drive Facebook, Instagram, TikTok, Snapchat and Pornhub. Cheap, ubiquitous, viralphotography has fed social movements like Black Lives Matter, but cameras are already prompting more problems than we knowwhat to do with — revenge porn, live-streamed terrorism, YouTube reactionaries and other photographic ills.And cameras aren’t done. They keep getting cheaper and — in ways both amazing and alarming — they are getting smarter.Advances in computer vision are giving machines the ability to distinguish and track faces, to make guesses about people’sbehaviors and intentions, and to comprehend and navigate threats in the physical environment. In China, smart cameras sit at thefoundation of an all-encompassing surveillance totalitarianism unprecedented in human history. In the West, intelligent cameras arenow being sold as cheap solutions to nearly every private and public woe, from catching cheating spouses and package thieves topreventing school shootings and immigration violations. I suspect these and more uses will take off, because in my years of coveringtech, I’ve gleaned one ironclad axiom about society: If you put a camera in it, it will sell.That’s why I worry that we’re stumbling dumbly into a surveillance state. And it’s why I think the only reasonable thing to do aboutsmart cameras now is to put a stop to them.[Farhad Manjoo will answer your questions about his column on Friday at 1:30 p.m. Eastern: @fmanjoo ]This week, San Francisco’s board of supervisors voted to ban the use of facial-recognition technology by the city’s police and otheragencies. Oakland and Berkeley are also considering bans, as is the city of Somerville, Mass. I’m hoping for a cascade. States, citiesand the federal government should impose an immediate moratorium on facial recognition, especially its use by law-enforcementagencies. We might still decide, at a later time, to give ourselves over to cameras everywhere. But let’s not jump into an all-seeingfuture without understanding the risks at hand.What are the risks? Two new reports by Clare Garvie, a researcher who studies facial recognition at Georgetown Law, brought the dangers home for me. In one report — written with Laura Moy, executive director of Georgetown Law’s Center on Privacy &Technology — Ms. Garvie uncovered municipal contracts indicating that law enforcement agencies in Chicago, Detroit and severalother cities are moving quickly, and with little public notice, to install Chinese-style ”real time” facial recognition systems.In Detroit, the researchers discovered that the city signed a $1 million deal with DataWorks Plus, a facial recognition vendor, forsoftware that allows for continuous screening of hundreds of private and public cameras set up around the city — in gas stations, fast-food restaurants, churches, hotels, clinics, addiction treatment centers, affordable-housing apartments and schools. Faces caught bythe cameras can be searched against Michigan’s driver’s license photo database. Researchers also obtained the Detroit PoliceDepartment’s rules governing how officers can use the system. The rules are broad, allowing police to scan faces ”on live or recordedvideo” for a wide variety of reasons, including to ”investigate and/or corroborate tips and leads.” In a letter to Ms. Garvie, James E.Craig, Detroit’s police chief, disputed any ”Orwellian activities,” adding that he took ”great umbrage” at the suggestion that the policewould ”violate the rights of law-abiding citizens.”[Facial recognition technology has stoked controversy over the years. Here’s a look back.]I’m less optimistic, and so is Ms. Garvie. ”Face recognition gives law enforcement a unique ability that they’ve never had before,” Ms.Garvie told me. ”That’s the ability to conduct biometric surveillance — the ability to see not just what is happening on the ground butwho is doing it. This has never been possible before. We’ve never been able to take mass fingerprint scans of a group of people insecret. We’ve never been able to do that with DNA. Now we can with face scans.”That ability alters how we should think about privacy in public spaces. It has chilling implications for speech and assembly protectedby the First Amendment; it means that the police can watch who participates in protests against the police and keep tabs on themafterward.In fact, this is already happening. In 2015, when protests erupted in Baltimore over the death of Freddie Gray while in police custody,the Baltimore County Police Department used facial recognition software to find people in the crowd who had outstanding warrants –arresting them immediately, in the name of public safety.But there’s another wrinkle in the debate over facial recognition. In a second report, Ms. Garvie found that for all their alleged power,face-scanning systems are being used by the police in a rushed, sloppy way that should call into question their results.Here’s one of the many crazy stories in Ms. Garvie’s report: In the spring of 2017, a man was caught on a security camera stealingbeer from a CVS store in New York. But the camera didn’t get a good shot of the man, and the city’s face-scanning system returnedno match.The police, however, were undeterred. A detective in the New York Police Department’s facial recognition department thought theman in the pixelated CVS video looked like the actor Woody Harrelson. So the detective went to Google Images, got a picture of theactor and ran his face through the face scanner. That produced a match, and the law made its move. A man was arrested for thecrime not because he looked like the guy caught on tape but because Woody Harrelson did.Devora Kaye, a spokeswoman for the New York Police Department, told me that the department uses facial recognition merely as aninvestigative lead and that ”further investigation is always needed to develop probable cause to arrest.” She added that ”the N.Y.P.D.constantly reassesses our existing procedures and in line with that are in the process of reviewing our existent facial recognitionprotocols.”This sort of sketchy search is routine in the face business. Face-scanning software sold to the police allows for easy editing of inputphotos. To increase the hits they get on a photo, the police are advised to replace people’s mouths, eyes and other facial featureswith model images pulled from Google. The software also allows for ”3D modeling,” essentially using computer animation to rotate orotherwise change a face so that it can match a standard mug-shot photo.In a bizarre twist, some police departments are even pushing the use of facial recognition on forensic sketches: They will search forreal people’s faces based on artists’ renderings of an eyewitness account, a process riddled with the sort of human subjectivity thatfacial recognition was supposed to obviate.The most troubling thing about all of this is that there are almost no rules governing its use. ”If we were to find out that a fingerprintanalyst were drawing in where he thought the missing lines of a fingerprint were, that would be grounds for a mistrial,” Ms. Garviesaid.But people are being arrested, charged and convicted based on similar practices in face searches. And because there are nomandates about what defendants and their attorneys must be told about these searches, the police are allowed to act with impunity.None of this is to say that facial recognition should be banned forever. The technology may have some legitimate uses. But it alsoposes profound legal and ethical quandaries. What sort of rules should we impose on law enforcement’s use of facial recognition?What about on the use of smart cameras by our friends and neighbors, in their cars and doorbells? In short, who has the right tosurveil others — and under what circumstances can you object?It will take time and careful study to answer these questions. But we have time. There’s no need to rush into the unknown. Let’s stopusing facial recognition immediately, at least until we figure out what is going on.Office Hours With Farhad Manjoo Farhad wants to chat with readers on the phone . If you’re interested in talking to a New York Times columnist about anything that’son your mind, please fill out this form. He will select a few readers to call.The Times is committed to publishing a diversity of letters to the editor. We’d like to hear what you think about this or any of ourarticles. Here are some tips . And here’s our email: [email protected] .Follow The New York Times Opinion section on Facebook , Twitter (@NYTopinion) and Instagram .This is a more complete version of the story than the one that appeared in print.CAPTION(S):DRAWING (DRAWING BY SIMONE NORONHA) COPYRIGHT 2019 The New York Times Company http://www.nytimes.com (MLA 8th Edition) Manjoo, Farhad. “Facial Recognition Must Be Put on Hold.” , 17 May 2019, p. A29(L). , https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A585695192/OVIC?u=uphoenix&sid=OVIC&xid=ca7be3a5. Accessed 4 Oct. 2020. GALE|A585695192
Hello please see the attached documents.
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