Identify, in this and in other sustainable development documents you may wish to read, the underlying world view, value, and ethical assumptions being made. To what sort of theory do they subscribe, and does that commitment play out in the recommendations and policies of sustainable development?To answer this question READ the document attached.Words: 800 Citation: APA
Identify, in this and in other sustainable development documents you may wish to read, the underlying world view, value, and ethical assumptions being made. To what sort of theory do they subscribe, a
6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 1/16 Our C om mon Fu tu re , Fr om O ne E arth t o O ne W orld A n O ve rv ie w b y t h e W orld C om m issi on o n E nvir o n m en t a n d D eve lo p m en t I. T he G lo b a l C halle n ge 1. Successes and failures 2. The Interlocking Crises 3. Sustainable Development 4. The Institutional Gaps II . T he P oli c y D ir e ctio n s 1. Population and Human Resources 2. Food Security: Sustaining the Potential 3. Species and Ecosystems: Resources for Development 4. Energy: Choices for Environment and Development 5. Industry: Producing More with Less 6. The Urban Challenge III . I n te rn atio n al C oop era tio n a n d I n stit u tio n al R efo rm 1. The Role of the International Economy 2. Managing the Commons 3. Peace, Security, Development, and the Environment 4. Institutional and Legal Change 4 .1 G ettin g a t t h e S ou rc e s 4 .2 D ea li n g w it h t h e E ffe cts 4 .3 A sse ssin g G lo b a l R is k s 4 .4 M akin g I n fo rm ed C hoic e s 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 2/16 4.5 P ro vid in g t h e L eg a l M ea n s 4.6 I n vestin g i n o u r Fu tu re IV . A C all f o r A ctio n 1. I n th e m iddle of t h e 20 th cent ury , we sa w ou r pl anet f r o m spa ce fo r t h e fir st t im e. H ist oria ns m ay ev ent ually f ind t h at t h is visio n had a g rea ter im pact o n th ou gh t t h an did t h e Co per nica n rev olu tio n of t h e 16 th cent ury , wh ich u pset t h e hum an sel f- im ag e by r ev ea ling t h at t h e Earth is no t t h e cent re of t h e univ erse. F ro m spa ce, we see a sm all a nd f r a g il e ball d om ina ted no t b y h um an act ivity a nd ed ifice bu t b y a pa tter n of cl ou ds, o cea ns, g reener y, a nd so ils. H um anit y’s ina bil it y t o f it it s act ivities into t h at pa tte rn is ch ang ing pl anet ary sy stem s, f u nd am ent ally . M any su ch ch ang es are acco mpa nied b y l if e- th rea tening h aza rd s. T his new rea lit y, f r o m wh ich t h er e is no esca pe, m ust b e reco gniz ed – a nd m an ag ed . 2. F ortu na tel y, t h is new rea lit y co incid es wit h m ore po sitive dev elopm ents new to t h is cent ury . W e ca n m ove inf orm atio n and g o od s fa st er a ro u nd t h e glo b e th an ev er b ef ore; we can pr od u ce m ore fo od a nd m ore go od s wit h l ess invest m ent o f r eso urces; ou r t ech nolo gy a nd science giv es us at l ea st, t h e po tent ial t o l o ok d eeper int o a nd b et ter u nd erstand na tu ra l sy stem s. F ro m spa ce, we ca n see and st udy t h e Earth a s an org anism wh ose hea lt h d epend s on th e hea lt h o f a l it s pa rts. W e have th e po wer t o r eco ncil e hum an affa ir s wit h na tu ra l l a ws and t o t h riv e in th e pr ocess. I n th is ou r cu lt u ra l a nd spir itual h er itag es ca n reinf orce ou r eco nomic int erest s and su rv iv al im per ativ es. 3. T his Co mmissio n bel iev es th at peo ple ca n bu il d a f u tu re th at is more pr osper ou s, m ore ju st , and m ore secu re. O ur r epo rt, O ur Co mmo n Fu tu re , is no t a pr ed ict ion of ev er incr easing env ironm ental d eca y, po ver ty , a nd h ard sh ip in an ev er m ore po llu ted wo rld a m ong ev er decr easing r eso urces. W e see inst ead t h e po ssib ilit y f o r a new era o f eco nomic gro wt h, o ne th at m ust b e based o n po licies th at su stain an d ex pa nd t h e env ironm ental r eso urce base. A nd we b el iev e su ch g ro wt h t o b e ab so lu tel y essent ial t o r el iev e th e grea t po ver ty t h at is deepening in m uch o f t h e dev eloping wo rld . 4. B ut t h e Co mmissio n’s hope fo r t h e fu tu re is co nd itio na l o n decisiv e po lit ica l a ct io n no w to b eg in mana ging env ironm ental r eso urces to ensu re both su staina ble hum an pr ogress and h um an su rv iv al. W e are no t f o reca sting a f u tu re; we are ser ving a no tice – a n urg ent no tice based o n th e la test a nd b est scient ific evidence – t h at t h e tim e has co me to t a k e th e decisio ns need ed t o secu re th e reso urces to su stain th is and co ming g ener atio ns. W e do no t o ffer a d et ail ed b lu epr int f o r act io n, b u t inst ead a pa th wa y b y wh ich t h e peo ples of t h e wo rld m ay enl arg e th eir sph eres of co oper atio n. I. T he G lo b al C halle n ge 1. Successes and failures 5. T hose lo oking f o r su ccess and sig ns of h ope can find m any : inf ant m orta lit y is fa lling ; h um an lif e ex pect ancy is incr easing ; th e pr opo rtio n of t h e wo rld ‘s ad u lt s wh o ca n rea d a nd wr ite is cl im bing ; th e pr opo rtio n of ch ildren starting sch ool is rising ; and g lo b al f o od pr od u ct io n incr eases fa st er t h an th e po pu la tio n gro w s. 6. B ut t h e sa me pr ocesses th at h ave pr od u ced t h ese gains have giv en rise to t r end s th at t h e pl anet a nd it s peo ple ca nno t l o ng b ea r. T hese have tr a d it io na lly b een div id ed int o f a il ures of ‘d ev elopm ent’ a nd f a il ures in th e m ana gem ent o f o u r h um an env ironm ent. O n th e dev elopm ent side, in ter ms of a b so lu te nu mber s th er e are m ore hung ry peo ple in th e wo rld t h an ev er b ef ore, a nd t h eir nu mber s are incr easing . S o a re th e nu mber s wh o ca nno t r ea d o r wr ite, t h e nu mber s wit hou t sa fe wa ter o r sa fe and so und h om es, a nd t h e nu mber s sh ort o f wo od fu el wit h wh ich t o co ok a nd wa rm t h em selves. T he gap bet ween rich a nd po or na tio ns is wid ening – no t sh rink ing – a nd t h er e is lit tle pr ospect , g iv en present t r end s and inst itutio na l a rra ng em ent s, t h at t h is pr ocess wil l b e rev ersed . 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 3/16 7. T her e are also env ironm ental t r end s th at t h rea ten to r a d ica lly a lt er t h e pl anet , t h at t h rea ten t h e liv es of m any species upo n it. incl uding t h e hum an species. E ach y ea r a no th er 6 m illio n hect ares of pr od u ct ive dry la nd t u rns into wo rth less deser t. O ver t h ree deca des, t h is wo uld a m ou nt t o a n area r o u gh ly a s la rg e as Sau di A ra b ia . M ore th an 11 millio n hect ares of f o rest s are d est ro yed y ea rly , a nd t h is, o ver t h ree deca des, wo uld eq ual a n area a b ou t t h e siz e of I nd ia. M uch of t h is fo rest is co nv erted t o l o w- gra d e fa rm la nd u na ble to su ppo rt t h e fa rm er s wh o set tle it. I n E uro pe, a cid pr ecipit atio n kil ls fo rest s an d l a k es and d am ag es th e artist ic and a rch itect ura l h er itag e of na tio ns; it m ay h ave acid ified v a st t r a ct s of so il b ey ond r ea sona ble hope of r epa ir. T he bu rning o f f o ssil f u el s pu ts int o t h e atm osph ere ca rb on dio xid e, wh ich is causing g ra d u al g lo b al wa rm ing . T his ‘g reenh ou se effect ‘ m ay b y ea rly nex t cent ury h ave incr eased a ver ag e glo b al tem per atu res eno ugh t o sh ift a g ricu lt u ra l pr od u ct io n area s, r a ise sea l ev els to f lo od co ast al cit ies, and d isr upt na tio na l eco nomies. O th er ind ust ria l g ases th rea ten to d epl ete th e pl anet ‘s pr otect ive ozo ne shiel d t o su ch a n ex tent t h at t h e nu mber o f h um an and a nim al ca ncer s wo uld r ise sharpl y and t h e ocea ns’ f o od ch ain wo uld b e disr upt ed , ind ust ry a nd a g ricu lt u re pu t t o xic su bst ances into th e hum an fo od ch ain and int o u nd ergro u nd wa ter t a b les bey ond r ea ch o f cl ea nsing . 8. T her e has been a g ro wing r ea liz atio n in na tio na l g o ver nm ents and m ult il ater al inst itutio ns th at it is im possib le to sepa ra te eco nomic d ev elopm ent issu es fr o m env ironm ent issu es; many fo rm s of d ev elopm ent er od e th e env ironm ental r eso urces upo n wh ich t h ey m ust b e based , a nd env ironm ental d eg ra d atio n ca n und ermine eco nomic dev elopm ent. P over ty is a m ajo r ca use and ef fect o f g lo b al env ironm ental pr ob lem s. I t is th er efore fu til e to a ttem pt t o d ea l wit h env ironm ental pr ob lem s wit hou t a b ro ad er per spect ive th at enco mpa sses th e fa ct ors und erly ing wo rld po ver ty a nd int erna tio na l ineq ualit y. 9 . T hese concer ns wer e beh ind t h e est ab lish ment in 1983 of t h e W orld Co mmissio n on E nv ironm ent a nd D ev elopm ent b y t h e U N Gener al A ssem bly . T he Co mmissio n is an ind epend ent b od y, l ink ed t o b u t o u tsid e th e co ntro l o f g o ver nm ents and t h e U N sy stem . T he Co mmissio n’s m and ate gave it t h ree ob je ct ives: to r e- ex am ine th e cr itica l env ironm ent a nd d ev elopm ent issu es and t o f o rm ula te rea list ic propo sals fo r d ea ling wit h t h em ; to pr opo se new fo rm s of int erna tio na l co oper atio n on th ese issu es th at wil l inf lu ence policies and ev ent s in th e dir ect ion of need ed ch ang es; and t o r a ise t h e lev els of u nd erstand ing a nd co mmitm ent t o a ct io n of ind ivid uals, v o lu nt ary o rg aniz atio ns, b u sinesses, inst itutes, a nd g o ver nm ents. 10. T hro u gh o u r d el ib er atio ns and t h e test imony o f peo ple at t h e pu blic hea ring s we hel d o n fiv e co ntinent s, a ll t h e co mmissio ners ca me to f o cu s on one cent ra l t h em e: many pr esent dev elopm ent t r end s lea ve incr easing nu mber s of peo ple po or a nd v u lner ab le, wh ile at t h e sa me tim e deg ra d ing t h e env ironm ent. H ow can su ch d ev elopm ent ser ve nex t cent ury ‘s wo rld o f t wice a s m any peo ple rel ying o n th e sa me env ironm ent? This rea liz atio n bro ad ened o u r v iew of d ev elopm ent. W e ca me to see it no t in its r est rict ed co ntex t o f eco nomic gro wt h in dev eloping co unt ries. W e ca me to see th at a new dev elopm ent pa th wa s req uir ed , o ne th at su stained h um an pr ogress not j u st in a f ew pieces fo r a f ew y ea rs, b u t f o r t h e ent ire pl anet int o t h e dist ant f u tu re. T hus ‘su staina ble dev elopm ent’ b eco mes a g o al no t j u st f o r t h e ‘d ev eloping ‘ na tio ns, b u t f o r ind ust ria l o nes as wel l. 2. The Interlocking Crises 11. U nt il r ecent ly , t h e pl anet wa s a l a rg e wo rld in wh ich h um an act ivities and t h eir ef fect s wer e neatly co mpa rtm ent aliz ed wit hin natio ns , wit hin sect ors (ener gy, a g ricu lt u re, t r a d e) , a nd wit hin bro ad a rea s of co ncer n (env ironm ent, ec ono mics, so cia l) . T hese compa rtm ent s have beg un to d isso lv e. T his appl ies in particu la r t o t h e v a rio us glo b al ‘cr ises’ t h at h ave seiz ed pu blic co ncer n, particu la rly o ver t h e pa st d eca de. T hese are no t sepa ra te cr ises: an env ironm ental cr isis, a d ev elopm ent cr isis, a n ener gy cr isis. T hey a re all o ne. 12 . T he pl anet is pa ssing t h ro u gh a per iod o f d ra m atic gro wt h a nd f u nd am ent al ch ang e. O ur h um an wo rld o f 5 b il lio n m ust m ak e ro om in a f init e env ironm ent f o r a no th er h um an wo rld . T he po pu la tio n co uld st ab il iz e at b et ween 8 a nd 14 b il lio n so metim e nex t cent ury , a cco rd ing t o U N pr oject ions. M ore th an 90 per cent o f t h e incr ease wil l o ccu r in th e po orest co unt ries, a nd 9 0 per cent o f t h at g ro wt h in alr ea dy b u rst ing ci ties. 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 4/16 13. E co no mic act ivity h as m ult ipl ied t o cr ea te a $ 13 tr il lio n wo rld eco nomy, a nd t h is co uld g ro w fiv e to t enf old in th e co ming h alf cent ury . I nd ust ria l pr od u ct io n has gro wn more th an fif ty fo ld o ver t h e pa st cent ury , f o u r-fif th s of t h is gro wt h since 1950 . S u ch f ig ures ref lect a nd pr esa ge pr ofo u nd im pacts upo n th e bio sph ere, a s th e wo rld inv ests in hou ses, t r a nspo rt, f a rm s, a nd ind ust ries. M uch o f t h e eco nomic gro wt h pu lls ra w mater ial f r o m f o rest s, so ils, sea s, a nd wa ter wa ys. T he W orld Co mmissio n on Env ironm ent a nd D ev elopm ent f ir st m et in Oct ob er 19 84. and pu blish ed it s R epo rt 9 0 0 d ays la ter , in Apr il 19 87. O ver t h ose few days: T he dro u gh t- tr ig ger ed , env ironm ent-d ev elopm ent cr isis in Afr ica pea ked , pu tting 36 m illio n peo ple at r isk , k il ling p er haps a m illio n. A l ea k f r o m a pest icides fa ct ory in Bhopa l, I nd ia, k il led m ore th an 2,0 00 peo ple and b lind ed a nd inj ured o ver 2 0 0,0 00 m ore. L iq uid g as ta nk s ex plod ed in Mex ico Cit y, k il ling 1, 000 a nd l ea ving t h ou sa nd s more hom eless. The Ch erno byl nu clea r r ea ctor ex plosio n sent nu clea r f a llo u t a cr oss Euro pe, incr easing t h e risk s of f u tu re hum an ca ncer s. Agricu lt u ra l ch em icals, so lv ent s, a nd m ercu ry f lo wed int o t h e Rhine Riv er d u ring a wa reh ou se fir e in Swit zer la nd , k il ling m illio ns of f ish a nd t h rea tening d rink ing water in th e Fed eral R epu blic of Ger many a nd t h e N et her la nd s. An est imated 6 0 m illio n peo ple died o f d ia rrh oea l d isea ses rel ated t o u nsa fe d rink ing wa ter a nd m alnu tr it io n; most o f t h e vict im s wer e ch ildren. 14 . A m ainspr ing o f eco nomic gro wt h is new tech nolo gy, a nd wh ile th is tech nolo gy o ffer s th e po tent ial f o r sl owing t h e dang erou sl y r a p id co nsu mpt ion of f init e reso urces, it a lso ent ail s hig h risk s, incl uding new fo rm s of po llu tio n and t h e int ro d u ct io n to t h e pl anet o f new va ria tio ns of l if e fo rm s th at co uld ch ang e ev olu tio na ry pa th wa ys. M ea nwh ile, t h e ind ust ries most h ea vil y r el ia nt on env ironm ental r eso urces and m ost h ea vil y po llu ting a re gro wing m ost r a pid ly in th e dev eloping wo rld , wh ere th er e is both m ore urg ency f o r g ro wt h a nd l ess capa cit y t o m inim ize dam ag ing sid e ef fect s. 15. T hese rel ated ch ang es have lo ck ed t h e glo b al eco nomy a nd g lo b al eco lo gy t o geth er in new wa ys. W e have in th e pa st b een concer ned a b ou t t h e im pacts of eco nomic gro wt h u po n th e env ironm ent. W e are no w fo rced t o co ncer n ou rsel ves wit h t h e im pacts of eco lo gica l st ress – deg ra d atio n of so ils, wa ter r eg im es, a tm osph ere, a nd f o rest s upo n ou r eco nomic prospect s. W e have in th e m ore recent pa st b een fo rced t o f a ce up to a sh arp incr ease in eco nomic int erdepend ence am ong na tio ns. W e are no w fo rced t o a ccu stom o u rsel ves to a n accel erating eco lo gica l int erdepend ence am ong na tio ns. E co lo gy a nd eco nomy a re beco ming ev er m ore int erwo ven lo ca lly , r eg iona lly , na tio na lly , a nd g lo b ally int o a sea mless net o f ca uses and ef fect s. 16. I m po ver ish ing t h e lo ca l r eso urce base ca n im pover ish wid er a rea s: def orest atio n by h ig hla nd fa rm er s ca uses flo od ing o n lo wl and f a rm s; fa ct ory po llu tio n ro b s lo ca l f ish ermen of t h eir ca tch . Su ch g rim l o ca l cy cles now oper ate na tio na lly a nd r eg iona lly . D ry la nd d eg ra d atio n send s environm ental r ef ugees in th eir m illio ns acr oss natio na l b ord er s. D ef orest atio n in Latin Am er ica and A sia is causing m ore flo od s, a nd m ore dest ru ct ive flo od s, in downh ill, d ownst rea m na tio ns. Acid pr ecipit atio n and nu clea r f a llo u t h ave spr ead a cr oss th e bord er s of E uro pe. S im ilar ph eno mena a re em erging o n a g lo b al sca le, su ch a s glo b al wa rm ing a nd l o ss of o zo ne. Int erna tio na lly t r a d ed h aza rd ou s ch em icals ent ering f o od s are th em selves int erna tio na lly t r a d ed . In th e nex t cent ury , t h e env ironm ental p ressu re ca using po pu la tio n m ovem ent s m ay b e incr ease sh arpl y, wh ile barrier s to t h at m ovem ent m ay b e ev en fir m er t h an th ey a re no w. 17. O ver t h e pa st f ew deca des, l if e- th rea tening env ironm ental co ncer ns have su rfa ced in th e dev eloping wo rld . Co unt ry sid es are co ming u nd er pr essu re fr o m incr easing nu mber s of f a rm er s 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 5/16 and t h e la nd less. Cit ies are fil ling wit h pe opl e, ca rs, a nd f a ct ories. Yet a t t h e sa me tim e th ese dev eloping co unt ries ou st o per ate in a wo rld in wh ich t h e reso urces gap bet ween most d ev eloping a nd ind ust ria l na tio ns is wid ening , in wh ich t h e ind ust ria l wo rld d om ina tes in th e ru le- m ak ing o f so me key int erna tio na l b od ies and in wh ich t h e ind ust ria l wo rld h as alr ea dy u sed m uch o f t h e pl anet ‘s eco lo gica l ca pit al. T his ineq ualit y is th e pl anet ‘s m ain ‘env ironm ental’ pr ob lem ; it is also it s m ain ‘d ev elopm ent’ pr ob lem . 18. I nt erna tio na l eco nomic rel atio nsh ips pose a pa rticu la r pr ob lem f o r env ironm ental m ana gem ent in many d ev eloping co unt ries. A gricu lt u re, f o rest ry , ener gy pr od u ct io n, a nd m ining gener ate at l ea st h alf t h e gro ss natio na l pr od u ct o f m any d ev eloping co unt ries and a cco unt f o r ev en la rg er sh ares of l iv elih ood s and em ploym ent . E xpo rts of na tu ra l r eso urces rem ain a l a rg e fa ct or in th eir eco nomies, especia lly f o r t h e lea st d ev eloped . M ost o f t h ese count ries fa ce eno rm ou s eco nomic pressu res, b oth int erna tio na l a nd d om est ic, t o o ver ex ploit t h eir env ironm ental r eso urce base. 19 . T he recent cr isis in Afr ica b est a nd m ost t r a g ica lly il lu st ra tes th e wa ys in wh ich eco nomics and eco lo gy ca n int eract d est ru ct ively a nd t r ip int o d isa ster . T rig ger ed b y d ro u gh t, it s rea l ca uses lie deeper . T hey a re to b e fo u nd in part in natio na l po licies th at g ave to o l it tle attent ion, t o o l a te, t o t h e need s of sm allh old er a g ricu lt u re and t o t h e th rea ts po sed b y r a pid ly r ising po pu la tio ns. Their r o ots ex tend a lso t o a g lo b al eco nomic system t h at t a k es more ou t o f a po or co ntinent t h an it pu ts in. D eb ts th at t h ey ca nno t pa y f o rce Afr ica n na tio ns rel ying o n co mmod it y sa les to o ver use th eir f r a g il e so ils, t h us tu rning g o od l a nd t o d eser t. T ra d e barrier s in th e wea lt h y na tio ns – a nd in m any d ev eloping na tio ns – m ak e it h ard f o r A fr ica n na tio ns to sel l t h eir g o o d s fo r r ea sona ble r et urns, pu tting y et m ore pr essu re on eco lo gica l sy stem s. A id f r o m d ono r na tio ns has no t o nl y been inadeq uate in sca le, b u t t o o o ft en has ref lect ed t h e pr iorit ies of t h e na tio ns giv ing t h e aid , ra th er t h an th e need s of t h e recipient s. The Co mmissio n has so ugh t wa ys in wh ich g lo b al d ev elopm ent ca n be pu t o n a su staina ble pa th int o t h e 21st Cent ury . S om e 5,0 00 d ays wil l el apse bet ween th e pu blica tio n of o u r r epo rt a nd t h e fir st d ay o f t h e 21st Cent ury . W hat env ironm ental cr ises lie in store over t h ose 5,0 00 d ays? D uring t h e 19 70 s, t wice as m any peo ple su ffer ed ea ch y ea r f r o m ‘na tu ra l’ d isa ster s as d u ring t h e 19 60 s. T he disa ster s m ost d ir ect ly a sso ciated wit h env ironm ent/developm ent m ism ana gem ent – d ro u gh ts and f lo od s – a ffect ed t h e m ost peo ple and incr eased m ost sh arpl y in ter ms of nu mber s affect ed. S om e 18 .5 m illio n peo ple wer e affect ed b y d ro u gh t a nnu ally in th e 19 60 s, 2 4 .4 m illio n in th e 19 70 s. T her e wer e 5.2 m illio n flo od v ict im s yea rly in th e 19 60 s, 15 .4 m illio n in th e 19 70 s. N um ber s of v ict im s of cy clones and ea rth qu ak es also sh ot u p as gro wing nu mber s of po or peo ple bu il t u nsa fe hou ses on dang erou s gro u nd . The resu lt s are no t in fo r t h e 19 60 s. B ut w e have seen 35 b il lio n afflict ed b y d ro u gh t in A fr ica a lo ne and t ens of m illio ns affect ed b y t h e bet ter m ana ged a nd t h us less- pu bliciz ed I nd ian dro u gh t. F lo od s have pou red o ff t h e def orest ed A nd es and H im ala ya s wit h incr easing f o rce. T he 19 60 s seem d est ined t o sweep th is dir e tr end o n int o a cr isis- fil led 19 90 s. 20 . T he pr od u ct io n base of o th er d ev eloping wo rld a rea s su ffer s sim ilarly f r o m b oth l o ca l f a il ures a nd f r o m t h e wo rk ing s of int erna tio na l eco nomic system s. A s a co nseq uence of t h e ‘d eb t cr isis’ o f L atin Am er ica , t h at co ntinent ‘s na tu ra l r eso urces are no w being u sed no t f o r d ev elopm ent b u t t o m eet f ina ncia l o b lig atio ns to cr ed itors ab ro ad . T his appr oach t o t h e deb t pr ob lem is sh ort- sig hted f r o m sev eral st and point s: eco nomic, po lit ica l, a nd env ironm ental. I t r eq uir es rel ativ ely po or co unt ries sim ult a neo usl y t o a ccept g ro wing po ver ty wh ile ex po rting g ro wing a m ou nt s of sca rce reso urces. 2 1. A m ajo rit y o f d ev eloping co unt ries now have lo wer per ca pit a inco mes th an wh en th e deca de beg an. R ising po ver ty a nd u nem ploym ent h ave incr eased pr essu re on env ironm ental r eso urces a s m ore peo ple have been fo rced t o r el y m ore dir ect ly u po n th em . M any g o ver nm ents have cu t 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 6/16 back ef fo rts to pr otect t h e env ironm ent a nd t o b ring eco lo gica l co nsid eratio ns into d ev elopm ent planning . 22. T he deepening a nd wid ening env ironm ental cr isis present s a t h rea t t o na tio na l secu rit y – a nd ev en surv iv al – t h at m ay b e grea ter t h an wel l- a rm ed , il l- d ispo sed neig hbou rs and u nf riend ly a llia nces. A lr ea dy in parts of L atin Am er ica , A sia , t h e M iddle East , a nd A fr ica , env ironm ental d ecl ine is beco ming a so urce of po lit ica l u nr est a nd int erna tio na l t ensio n. T he recent d est ru ct io n of m uch o f A fr ica ‘s dry la nd a g ricu lt u ra l pr od u ct io n wa s m ore sev ere th an if a n inv ad ing a rm y had pu rsu ed a sco rch ed -ea rth po licy . Yet m ost o f t h e affect ed g o ver nm ents st ill spend f a r m ore to pr otect t h eir peo ple fr o m inv ad ing a rm ies th an fr o m t h e inv ad ing d eser t. 2 3. Gl ob ally , m ilit ary ex pend itures to ta l a b ou t $ 1 tr il lio n a y ea r a nd co ntinu e to g ro w. I n m any co unt ries, m ilit ary spend ing co nsu mes such a h ig h pr opo rtio n of GN P t h at it it sel f d oes grea t dam ag e to t h ese societ ies’ d ev elopm ent ef fo rts. Go ver nm ents tend t o b ase th eir a ppr oach es to ‘secu rit y’ o n tr a d it io na l d ef init ions. T his is most o b vio us in th e attem pts to a ch iev e secu rit y th ro u gh t h e dev elopm ent o f po tent ially p la net -d est ro ying nu clea r wea pons system s. S tu dies su ggest t h at t h e co ld a nd d ark nu clea r wi nter f o llo wing ev en a l im ited nu clea r wa r co uld d est ro y pl ant a nd a nim al eco system s and l ea ve any h um an su rv iv ors occu pying a d ev ast ated pl anet v er y dif fer ent f r o m t h e one th ey inh erited . 24 . T he arm s ra ce – in all pa rts of t h e wo rld – pr e-em pts reso urces th at m ight b e used m ore pr od u ct ively t o d im inish t h e secu rit y t h rea ts cr ea ted b y env ironm ental co nflict a nd t h e resent ment s th at a re fu el led b y wid espr ea d po ver ty . 2 5. M any pr esent ef fo rts to g u ard a nd m aint ain hum an pr ogress, t o m eet h um an need s, a nd t o r ea liz e hum an am bit io ns are sim ply u nsu staina ble – in both t h e rich a nd po or na tio ns. T hey d ra w to o h ea vil y, t o o q u ick ly , o n alr ea dy o ver dra wn env ironm ental r eso urce acco unt s to b e affo rd ab le f a r int o t h e fu tu re wit hou t b ank ru pt ing t h ose acco unt s. T hey m ay sh ow pr ofit o n th e bala nce sh eet s of o u r g ener atio n, b u t o u r ch ildren wil l inh erit t h e lo sses. W e borro w env ironm ental ca pit al f r o m f u tu re gener atio ns wit h no i nt ent ion or pr ospect o f r epa ying . T hey m ay d am n us fo r ou r spend th rif t wa ys, b u t t h ey ca n nev er co llect o n ou r d eb t t o t h em . W e act a s we do b eca use we can get a wa y wit h it : fu tu re gener atio ns do no t v o te; th ey h ave no po lit ica l o r f ina ncia l po wer ; th ey ca nno t ch alleng e ou r d ecisio ns. 26 . B ut t h e resu lt s of t h e pr esent pr oflig acy a re ra pid ly cl osing t h e opt ions fo r f u tu re gener atio ns. M ost o f t o d ay’s decisio n m ak er s wil l b e dea d b ef ore th e pl anet f eel s; th e hea vier ef fect s of a cid pr ecipit atio n, g lo b al wa rm ing , o zo ne depl etio n, o r wid espr ead d eser tif ica tio n and species lo ss. M ost o f t h e yo u ng v o ter s of t o d ay wil l st ill b e aliv e. I n th e Co mmissio n’s hea ring s it wa s th e yo u ng , t h ose wh o h ave th e m ost t o l o se, w ho wer e th e harsh est cr itics of t h e pl anet ‘s pr esent mana gem ent . 3. Sustainable Development 27. H um anit y h as th e ab il it y t o m ak e dev elopm ent su staina ble to ensu re th at it m eet s th e need s of t h e pr esent wit hou t co mpr om ising t h e a b il it y o f f u tu re gener atio ns to m eet t h eir o wn need s. The co ncept o f su staina ble dev elopm ent d oes im ply l im its – no t a b so lu te lim its bu t l im itatio ns im posed b y t h e pr esent st ate of t ech nolo gy a nd so cia l o rg aniz atio n on env ironm ental r eso urces a nd b y t h e ab il it y o f t h e bio sph ere to a b so rb t h e ef fect s of h um an act ivities. B ut t ech nolo gy a nd so cia l o rg aniz atio n ca n be both m ana ged a nd im proved t o m ak e wa y f o r a new era o f eco nomic gro wt h. T he Co mmissio n bel iev es th at wid espr ead po ver ty is no l o ng er inev itab le. P over ty is no t onl y a n ev il in itsel f, b u t su staina ble dev elo pm ent r eq uir es meet ing t h e basic need s of a ll a nd ex tend ing t o a ll t h e oppo rtu nit y t o f u lf il t h eir a spir atio ns fo r a b et ter l if e. A wo rld in wh ich pover ty is end emic wil l a lwa ys be pr one to eco lo gica l a nd o th er ca ta st ro ph es. 28 . M eet ing essent ial need s req uir es not o nl y a new era o f eco nomic gro wt h f o r na tio ns in wh ich th e m ajo rit y a re po or, b u t a n assu ra nce th at t h ose poor g et t h eir f a ir sh are of t h e reso urces req uir ed t o su stain th at g ro wt h. S u ch eq uit y wo uld b e aid ed b y po lit ica l sy stem s th at secu re ef fect ive cit izen participa tio n in decisio n m ak ing a nd b y g rea ter d em ocr acy in int erna tio na l decisio n m ak ing . 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 7/16 29 . S u st aina ble glo b al d ev elopm ent r eq uir es th at t h ose wh o a re m ore afflu ent a d opt l if e- styles wit hin th e pl anet ‘s eco lo gica l m ea ns – in th eir u se of ener gy, f o r ex am ple. F urth er , r a pid ly g ro wing po pu la tio ns can incr ease th e pr essu re on reso urces and sl ow any r ise in liv ing stand ard s; th us su staina ble dev elopm ent ca n onl y b e pu rsu ed if po pu la tio n siz e and g ro wt h a re in harm ony wit h t h e ch ang ing pr od u ct ive po tent ial o f t h e eco system . 30. Yet in th e end , su staina ble dev elopm ent is no t a f ix ed st ate of h arm ony , b u t r a th er a pr ocess of ch ang e in wh ich t h e ex ploit atio n of r eso urces, t h e dir ect ion of inv estment s, t h e orient atio n of tech nolo gica l d ev elopm ent, a nd inst itutio na l ch ang e are m ad e co nsist ent wit h f u tu re as wel l a s pr esent need s. W e do no t pr etend t h at t h e pr ocess is ea sy o r st ra ig htfo rwa rd . P ainf ul ch oices h ave to b e m ad e. T hus, in th e fina l a na ly sis, su staina ble dev elopm ent m ust r est o n po lit ica l wil l. 4. The Institutional Gaps 31. T he ob ject ive of su staina ble dev elopm ent a nd t h e int egra ted na tu re of t h e glo b al env ironm ent/developm ent ch alleng es pose prob lem s fo r inst itutio ns, na tio na l a nd int erna tio na l, t h at wer e est ab lish ed o n th e basis of na rro w pr eo ccu patio ns and co mpa rtm ent aliz ed co ncer ns. Gover nm ents’ g ener al r espo nse to t h e speed a nd sca le of g lo b al ch ang es has been a r el uct ance to r eco gniz e su fficient ly t h e need t o ch ang e t h em selves. T he ch alleng es are both int erdepend ent and int egra ted , r eq uir ing co mpr eh ensiv e appr oach es and po pu la r pa rticipa tio n. 32 . Yet m ost o f t h e inst itutio ns fa cing t h ose challeng es tend t o b e ind epend ent, f r a g m ent ed, wo rk ing t o r el ativ ely na rro w mand ates wit h cl osed d ecisio n pr ocesses. T hose respo nsible fo r m ana ging na tu ra l r eso urces and pr otect ing t h e env ironm ent a re inst itutio na lly sepa ra ted f r o m th ose respo nsible fo r m ana ging t h e eco nom y. T he rea l wo rld o f int erlo ck ed eco nomic and eco lo gica l sy stem s wil l no t ch ang e; th e policies and inst itutio ns concer ned m ust . 33. T her e is a g ro wing need f o r ef fect ive int erna tio na l co oper atio n to m ana ge eco lo gica l a nd eco nomic int erdepend ence. Yet a t t h e sa me tim e, co nfidence in int erna tio na l o rg aniz atio ns is dim inish ing a nd su ppo rt f o r t h em d wind ling . 34. T he oth er g rea t inst itutio na l f la w in coping wit h env ironm ent/developm ent ch alleng es is go ver nm ents’ f a il ure to m ak e th e bod ies whose policy a ct io ns deg ra d e th e env ironm ent respo nsible fo r ensu ring t h at t h eir po licie s pr event t h at d eg ra d atio n. E nv ironm ental co ncer n aro se fr o m d am ag e ca used b y t h e ra pid eco nomic gro wt h f o llo wing t h e Seco nd W orld W ar. Go ver nm ents, pr essu red b y t h eir cit izens, sa w a need t o cl ea n up th e m ess, a nd t h ey est ab lish ed env ironm ental m inist ries and a g encies to d o t h is. M any h ad g rea t su ccess within th e lim its of th eir m and ates – in im proving a ir a nd wa ter q u alit y a nd enh ancing o th er r eso urces. B ut m uch o f th eir wo rk h as of necessit y b een aft er -th e- fa ct r epa ir o f d am ag e: ref orest atio n, r ecl aim ing d eser t la nd s, r eb uil ding u rb an env ironm ents, r est oring na tu ra l h ab it ats, a nd r eh ab il it ating wil d l a nd s. 35. T he ex ist ence of su ch a g encies gave m any g o ver nm ents and t h eir cit izens th e fa lse im pressio n th at t h ese bod ies wer e by t h em selves ab le to pr otect a nd enh ance th e env ironm ental r eso urce b ase. Yet m any ind ust ria liz ed a nd m ost d ev eloping co unt ries carry h uge eco nomic bu rd ens fr o m inh erited pr ob lem s su ch a n air a nd wa ter po llu tio n, d epl etio n of g ro u nd wa ter , a nd t h e pr olif er atio n of t o xic ch em icals and h aza rd ou s wa stes. T hese have been jo ined b y m ore recent pr ob lem s – er osio n, d eser tif ica tio n, a cid if ica tio n, new chem icals, a nd new fo rm s of wa ste – t h at a re dir ect ly r el ated t o a g ricu lt u ra l, ind ust ria l, ener gy, f o rest ry , a nd t r a nspo rta tio n po licies and pr act ices. 36 . T he m and ates of t h e cent ra l eco nomic and sect ora l m inist ries are also o ft en to o na rro w, t o o co ncer ned wit h q u ant ities of pr od u ct io n or g ro wt h. T he m and ates of m inist ries of ind ust ry incl ude pr od u ct io n ta rg et s, wh ile th e acco mpa ny ing po llu tio n is lef t t o m inist ries of env ironm ent. E lect ricit y b oard s pr od u ce power , wh ile th e acid po llu tio n th ey a lso pr od u ce is lef t to o th er b od ies to cl ea n up. T he pr esent ch alleng e is to g iv e th e cent ra l eco nomic and sect ora l m inist ries th e respo nsibilit y f o r t h e qu ali t y o f t h ose parts of t h e hum an env ironm ent a ffect ed b y th eir d ecisio ns, a nd t o g iv e th e env ironm ental a g encies more po wer t o co pe wit h t h e ef fect s of u nsu staina ble dev elopm ent. 37. T he sa me need f o r ch ang e hold s fo r int erna tio na l a g encies concer ned wit h d ev elopm ent lend ing, t r a d e reg ula tio n, a g ricu lt u ra l d ev elopm ent, a nd so o n. T hese have been slow to t a k e th e 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 8/16 environm ental ef fect s of t h eir wo rk int o a cco unt , a lt h ou gh so me are tr y ing t o d o so . 38 . T he ab il it y t o a nt icipa te and pr event env ironm ental d am ag e req uir es th at t h e eco lo gica l dim ensio ns of po licy b e co nsid ered a t t h e sa me tim e as th e eco nomic, t r a d e, ener gy, a g ricu lt u ra l, a nd o th er d im ensio ns. T hey sh ou ld b e co nsid ered o n th e sa me ag end as and in th e sa me na tio na l and int erna tio na l inst itutio ns. 39 . T his reo rient atio n is one of t h e ch ief inst itutio na l ch alleng es of t h e 19 90 s and b ey ond . Meet ing it wil l r eq uir e m ajo r inst itutio na l d ev elopm ent a nd r ef orm . M any co unt ries th at a re to o po or o r sm all o r t h at h ave lim ited m ana ger ial ca pa cit y wil l f ind it d if ficu lt t o d o t h is una ided . They wil l need f ina ncia l a nd t ech nica l a ssist ance and t r a ining . B ut t h e ch ang es req uir ed inv olv e a ll co unt ries, l a rg e and sm all, r ich a nd po or. I I. T he P oli c y D ir e ctio n s 40 . T he Co mmissio n has fo cu sed it s attent ion in th e area s of po pu la tio n, f o od secu rit y, t h e lo ss of species and g enet ic reso urces, ener gy, in du st ry , a nd h um an set tlem ent s – r ea liz ing t h at a ll o f th ese are co nnect ed a nd ca nno t b e tr ea te d in iso la tio n one fr o m a no th er . T his sect ion co ntains o nl y a f ew of t h e Co mmissio n’s m any r ec om mend atio ns. 1. Population and Human Resources 41. I n m any pa rts of t h e wo rld , t h e po pu la tio n is gro wing a t r a tes th at ca nno t b e su stained b y ava il ab le env ironm ental r eso urces, a t r a tes th at a re ou tst ripping a ny r ea sona ble ex pect atio ns of im provem ent s in hou sing , h ea lt h ca re, f o od secu rit y, o r ener gy su ppl ies. 42. T he issu e is no t j u st nu mber s of peo ple, b u t h ow th ose nu mber s rel ate to a va il ab le reso urces. T hus th e ‘po pu la tio n pr ob lem ‘ m ust b e dea lt wit h in part b y ef fo rts to el im ina te m ass po ver ty , in o rd er t o a ssu re m ore eq uit ab le access to r eso urces, a nd b y ed uca tio n to im prove hum an po tent ial to m ana ge th ose reso urces. 4 3. U rg ent st eps are need ed t o l im it ex tr em e ra tes of po pu la tio n gro wt h. Ch oices mad e no w wil l influ ence th e lev el a t wh ich t h e po pu la tio n stab il iz es nex t cent ury wit hin a r a ng e of 6 b il lio n peo ple. B ut t h is is no t j u st a d em ogra ph ic issu e; provid ing peo ple wit h f a cil ities and ed uca tio n th at a llo w th em t o ch oose th e siz e of t h eir f a m ilies is a wa y o f a ssu ring – especia lly f o r wo men – th e basic hum an rig ht o f sel f- d et er mina tio n. 44. Go ver nm ents th at need t o d o so sh ou ld d ev elop lo ng -ter m, m ult if acet ed po pu la tio n po licies a nd a ca mpa ign to pu rsu e bro ad d em ogra ph ic go als: to st reng th en socia l, cu lt u ra l, a nd eco nomic motiv atio ns fo r f a m ily pl anning , a nd t o pr ovid e to a ll wh o wa nt t h em t h e ed uca tio n, co ntra cept ives, a nd ser vices req uir ed . 45. H um an reso urce dev elopm ent is a cr ucia l r eq uir em ent no t o nl y t o b u il d u p tech nica l kno wled ge and ca pa bil it ies, b u t a lso t o cr ea te new va lu es to h el p ind ivid uals and na tio ns cope wit h r a pid ly ch ang ing so cia l, env ironm enta l, a nd d ev elopm ent r ea lit ies. K no wled ge sh ared g lo b ally wo uld a ssu re grea ter m utu al u nd erstand ing a nd cr ea te grea ter wil ling nes s to sh are g lo b al r eso urces equit ab ly . 4 6 . T rib al a nd ind igeno us peo ples wil l need specia l a ttent ion as th e fo rces of eco nomic dev elopm ent d isr upt t h eir t r a d it io na l l if e-st yles – l if e- styles th at ca n offer m od er n so ciet ies many lesso ns in th e m ana gem ent o f r eso urces in complex f o rest , m ou nt ain, a nd d ry la nd eco system s. Som e are th rea tened wit h v ir tu al ex tinct ion by insensit ive dev elopm ent o ver wh ich t h ey h ave no co ntro l. T heir t r a d it io na l r ig hts sh ou ld b e reco gniz ed a nd t h ey sh ou ld b e giv en a d ecisiv e vo ice in fo rm ula ting po licies ab ou t r eso urce dev elopm ent in th eir a rea s. ( S ee Ch ap te r 4 f o r a wid er discu ssion of t h ese issu es and r eco mmend atio ns. ) 2. Food Security: Sustaining the Potential 47. Gr owt h in wo rld cer eal pr od u ct io n has st ea dil y o u tst ripped wo rld po pu la tio n gro wt h. Yet ea ch y ea r t h er e are m ore peo ple in th e w orld wh o d o no t g et eno ugh f o od . Gl ob al a g ricu lt u re has th e po tent ial t o g ro w eno ugh f o od f o r a ll, b u t f o od is oft en not a va il ab le wh ere it is need ed. 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 9/16 48 . P ro d u ct io n in ind ust ria liz ed co unt ries has usu ally b een hig hly su bsid ized a nd pr otect ed f r o m int erna tio na l co mpet itio n. T hese subsid ies have enco ura g ed t h e over use of so il a nd ch em icals, t h e po llu tio n of b oth wa ter r eso urces and f o od s wit h t h ese chem icals, a nd t h e deg ra d atio n of t h e co unt ry sid e. M uch o f t h is effo rt h as pr od u ced su rpl uses and t h eir a sso ciated f ina ncia l b u rd ens. A nd so me of t h is su rpl us has been sent a t co ncessio nal r a tes to t h e dev eloping wo rld , wh ere it has und ermined t h e fa rm ing po licies of r ecipient na tio ns. T her e is, h owev er, g ro wing a wa reness in some co unt ries of t h e env ironm ental a nd eco nomic co nseq uences of su ch pa th s, a nd t h e em phasis of a g ricu lt u ra l po licies is to enco ura g e co nser va tio n. 49 . M any d ev eloping co unt ries, o n th e oth er h and , h ave su ffer ed t h e oppo site pr ob lem : fa rm er s are no t su fficient ly su ppo rted . I n so me, im proved t ech nolo gy a llied t o pr ice incent ives and g o ver nm ent ser vices has pr od u ced a m ajo r b rea kth ro u gh in fo od pr od u ct io n. B ut el sewh ere, t h e fo od -g ro wing sm all f a rm er s have been neglect ed. Co ping wit h o ft en ina deq uate tech nolo gy a nd few eco nomic incent ives, m any a re pu shed o nt o m arg ina l l a nd : to o d ry , t o o st eep, l a ck ing in nu tr ient s. F orest s are cl ea red a nd pr od u ct ive dry la nd s rend ered b arren. 5 0 . M ost d ev eloping na tio ns need m ore ef fect ive incent ive sy stem s to enco ura g e pr od u ct io n, especia lly o f f o od cr ops. I n sh ort, t h e ‘t er ms of t r a d e’ need t o b e tu rned in fa vo u r o f t h e sm all f a rm er . M ost ind ust ria liz ed na tio ns, o n th e oth er h and , m ust a lt er pr esent sy stem s in ord er t o cu t su rpl uses, t o r ed uce unf air co mpet itio n wit h na tio ns th at m ay h ave rea l co mpa ra tiv e ad va nt ag es, a nd t o pr om ote eco lo gica lly so und f a rm ing pr act ices. 51. F ood secu rit y r eq uir es attent ion to q u est ions of d ist rib utio n, since hung er o ft en arises fr o m la ck o f pu rch asing po wer r a th er t h an la ck o f a va il ab le fo od . I t ca n be fu rth er ed b y l a nd r ef orm s, and b y po licies to pr otect v u lner ab le su bsist ence fa rm er s, pa stora 1ist s, a nd t h e la nd less – g ro u ps wh o b y t h e yea r 2 0 00 wil l incl ude 220 m illio n hou seh old s. T heir g rea ter pr osper ity wil l d epend on int egra ted r u ra l d ev elopm ent t h at inc rea ses work o ppo rtu nit ies both insid e and o u tsid e ag ricu lt u re. ( S ee Ch ap te r 5 f o r a wid er d iscu ssion of t h ese issu es and r eco mmend atio ns. ) 3. Species and Ecosystems: Resources for Development 52 . T he pl anet ‘s species are und er st ress. T her e is a g ro wing scient ific co nsensu s th at species are d isa ppea ring a t r a tes nev er b ef ore wit nes sed o n th e pl anet , a lt h ou gh t h er e is also co ntro ver sy over t h ose ra tes and t h e risk s th ey ent ail . Yet t h er e is still t im e to h alt t h is pr ocess. 53. T he div er sit y o f species is necessa ry f o r t h e no rm al f u nct ioning o f eco system s and t h e bio sph ere as a wh ole. T he genet ic mater ial in wil d species contrib utes bil lio ns of d olla rs yea rly t o t h e wo rld eco nomy in th e fo rm o f im proved cr op species, new dru gs and m ed icines, a nd r a w m ater ials fo r ind ust ry . B ut u til it y a sid e, t h er e are also m ora l, et hica l, cu lt u ra l, a est het ic, a nd pu rel y scient ific rea sons fo r co nser ving w ild b eing s. 54 . A f ir st pr iorit y is to est ab lish t h e pr ob lem o f d isa ppea ring species and t h rea tened eco system s on po lit ica l a g end as as a m ajo r eco nomic a nd r eso urce issu e. 55. Go ver nm ents ca n stem t h e dest ru ct io n of t r o pica l f o rest s and o th er r eser vo ir s of b io lo gica l div er sit y wh ile dev eloping t h em eco nomica lly . R ef orm ing f o rest r ev enu e sy stem s and co ncessio n ter ms co uld r a ise bil lio ns of d olla rs of a d dit io na l r ev enu es, pr om ote m ore ef ficient , l o ng -ter m fo rest r eso urce use, a nd cu rta il d ef orest atio n. 56 . T he net work o f pr otect ed a rea s th at t h e wo rld wil l need in th e fu tu re m ust incl ude m uch la rg er a rea s bro u gh t u nd er so .ne deg ree of pr otect ion. T her efore, t h e co st o f co nser va tio n wil l rise – d ir ect ly a nd in ter ms of o ppo rtu nit ies fo r d ev elopm ent f o reg one. B ut o ver t h e lo ng t er m t h e oppo rtu nit ies fo r d ev elopm ent wil l b e en hanced . I nt erna tio na l d ev elopm ent a g en cies shou ld t h er efore giv e co mpr eh ensiv e and sy stem atic attent ion to t h e pr ob lem s and o ppo rtu nit ies of species conser va tio n. 57. Go ver nm ents sh ou ld inv estigate th e pro spect o f a g reeing t o a ‘S pecies Convent ion’, sim ilar in spir it a nd sco pe to o th er int erna tio na l co nv ent ions ref lect ing pr incipl es of ‘u niv ersa l r eso urces’ . They sh ou ld a lso co nsid er int erna tio na l f ina ncia l a rra ng em ent s to su ppo rt t h e im plem ent atio n of su ch a co nv ent ion. ( S ee Ch ap te r 6 f o r a wid er d iscu ssion of t h ese issu es and r eco mmend atio ns. ) 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 10/16 4. Energy: Choices for Environment and Development 58 . A sa fe and su staina ble ener gy pa th wa y is crucia l t o su staina ble dev elopm ent; we have no t y et fo u nd it . R ates of incr ease in ener gy u se have been decl ining . H owev er, t h e ind ustr ia liz atio n, ag ricu lt u ra l d ev elopm ent, a nd r a pid ly g ro wing po pu la tio ns of d ev eloping na tio ns wil l need m uch m ore ener gy. T od ay, t h e aver ag e per son in an ind ust ria l m ark et eco nomy u ses more th an 80 tim es as m uch ener gy a s so meo ne in sub-S ah ara n Afr ica . T hus any r ea list ic glo b al ener gy scena rio m ust pr ovid e fo r su bst ant ially incr eased pr im ary ener gy u se by d ev eloping co unt ries. 5 9 . T o b ring d ev eloping co unt ries’ ener gy u se up to ind ust ria liz ed co unt ry l ev els by t h e yea r 2 0 25 wo uld r eq uir e incr easing pr esent g lo b al e ner gy u se by a f a ct or o f f iv e. T he pl anet ary eco system co uld no t st and t h is, especia lly if t h e incr eases wer e based o n no n-renewa ble fo ssil f u el s. T hrea ts o f g lo b al wa rm ing a nd a cid ifica tio n of t h e env ironm ent m ost pr ob ab ly r u le ou t ev en a d ou bling o f ener gy u se bared o n pr esent m ixes of p rim ary so urces. 6 0 . A ny new era o f eco nomic gro wt h m ust t h er efore be less ener gy int ensiv e th an gro wt h in th e pa st. E ner gy ef ficiency po licies must b e th e cu tting ed ge of na tio na l ener gy st ra teg ies fo r su staina ble dev elopm ent, a nd t h er e is much sco pe fo r im provem ent in th is dir ect ion. M od er n appl iances can be red esig ned t o d el iv er t h e sa me am ou nt s of ener gy-ser vices with o nl y t wo – th ir ds or ev en one- half o f t h e pr im ary en ergy inpu ts need ed t o r u n tr a d it io na l eq uipm ent. A nd ener gy ef ficiency so lu tio ns are oft en cost-ef fect ive. 61. A ft er a lm ost f o u r d eca des of im mense t ech nolo gica l ef fo rt, nu clea r ener gy h as beco me wid ely used . D uring t h is per iod, h owev er, t h e na tu re of it s co sts, r isk s, a nd b enef its have beco me m ore ev ident a nd t h e su bject o f sh arp co ntro ver sy . D iffer ent co unt ries world -wid e ta k e up dif fer ent po sitions on th e use of nu clea r ener gy. T he discu ssion in th e Co mmissio n also r ef lect ed t h ese dif fer ent v iews and po sitions. Yet a ll a g reed t h at t h e gener atio n of nu clea r po wer is onl y ju st ifia ble if t h er e are so lid so lu tio ns to t h e unso lv ed pr ob lem s to wh ich it g iv es rise. T he hig hest pr iorit y sh ou ld b e acco rd ed t o r esea rch a nd d ev elopm ent o n env ironm entally so und a nd eco lo gica lly v ia ble alt er na tiv es, a s wel l a s on m ea ns of incr easing t h e sa fet y o f nu clea r ener gy. 6 2. E ner gy ef ficiency ca n onl y b u y t im e fo r t h e wo rld t o d ev elop ‘l o w- ener gy pa th s’ b ased o n renewa ble so urces, wh ich sh ou ld f o rm t h e fo u nd atio n of t h e glo b al ener gy st ru ct ure du ring t h e 21st Cent ury . M ost o f t h ese sources are cu rrent ly pr ob lem atic, b u t g iv en inno va tiv e dev elopm ent, th ey co uld su ppl y t h e sa me am ou nt o f pr im ary ener gy t h e pl anet no w co nsu mes. H owev er, ach iev ing t h ese use lev els wil l r eq uir e a pr ogra m me of co ord ina ted r esea rch , d ev elopm ent, a nd d em onst ra tio n pr oject s co mmand ing f u n ding necessa ry t o ensu re th e ra pid d ev elopm ent o f renewa ble ener gy. D ev eloping co unt ries will r eq uir e assist ance to ch ang e th eir ener gy u se pa tter ns in th is dir ect ion. 63. M illio ns of peo ple in th e dev eloping w orld a re sh ort o f f u el wo od , t h e m ain dom est ic ener gy o f h alf o f h um anit y, a nd t h eir nu mber s are gro wing . T he wo od -po or na tio ns must o rg aniz e th eir ag ricu lt u ra l sect ors to pr od u ce la rg e am ou nt s of wo od a nd o th er pl ant f u el s. 64. T he su bst ant ial ch ang es req uir ed in th e pr esent g lo b al ener gy m ix wil l no t b e ach iev ed b y m ark et pr essu res alo ne, g iv en th e dom ina nt r o le of g o ver nm ents as pr od u cer s of ener gy a nd th eir im porta nce as co nsu mer s. I f t h e recent m om ent um b eh ind a nnu al g ains in ener gy ef ficiency is to b e m aint ained a nd ex tend ed,g o ver nm ents need t o m ak e it a n ex plicit g o al o f t h eir po licies fo r ener gy pr icing t o co nsu mer s, pr ices need ed t o enco ura g e th e ad opt ion of ener gy- sa ving m ea su res may b e ach iev ed t h ro u gh sev eral m ea ns. A lt h ou gh t h e Co mmissio n ex presses no pr efer ence, ‘co nser va tio n pr icing ‘ r eq uir es th at g o ver nm ents ta k e a l o ng -ter m v iew in weig hing t h e co sts and b enef its of t h e va rio us m ea su res. Giv en th e im porta nce of o il pr ices on int erna tio na l ener gy po licy , new mech anism s fo r enco ura g ing d ia lo gu e bet ween consu mer s and pr od u cer s sh ou ld b e ex plored . 65. A sa fe, env ironm entally so und , a nd e co no mica lly v ia ble ener gy pa th wa y t h at wil l su stain h um an pr ogress into t h e dist ant f u tu re is cl ea rly im per ativ e. I t is also po ssib le. B ut it wil l r eq uir e new dim ensio ns of po lit ica l wil l a nd inst itutio na l co oper atio n to a ch iev e it. ( S ee Ch ap te r 7 f o r a wid er d iscu ssion of t h ese issu es and r eco mmend atio ns. ) 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 11/16 5. Industry: Producing More with Less 6 6. T he wo rld m anu fa ct ures sev en tim es more go o d s to d ay t h an it d id a s recent ly a s 19 50 . Giv en popu la tio n gro wt h r a tes, a f iv e- t o t enf old incr ease in manu fa ct uring o u tpu t wil l b e need ed j u st to r a ise dev eloping wo rld co nsu mpt ion of m anu fa ct ured g o o d s to ind ust ria liz ed wo rld l ev els by th e tim e po pu la tio n gro wt h r a tes lev el o ff nex t cent ury . 6 7. E xper ience in th e ind ust ria liz ed na tio ns has pr oved t h at a nt i-po llu tio n tech nolo gy h as been co st-ef fect ive in ter ms of h ea lt h , pr oper ty , a nd env ironm ental d am ag e avo id ed , a nd t h at it h as m ad e m any ind ust ries more pr ofit ab le by wa king t h em m ore reso urce- efficient . W hile eco nomic gro wt h h as co ntinu ed, t h e co nsu mpt ion of r a w mater ials has hel d st ea dy o r ev en decl ined , a nd new tech nolo gies offer f u rth er ef ficiencies. 6 8 . N atio ns have to b ea r t h e co sts of a ny ina ppr opr iate ind ust ria liz atio n, a nd m any d ev eloping co unt ries are rea liz ing t h at t h ey h ave nei th er t h e reso urces nor – g iv en ra pid t ech nolo gica l chang e – t h e tim e to d am ag e th eir env ironm ents no w and cl ea n up la ter . B ut t h ey a lso need a ssist ance and inf orm atio n fr o m ind ust ria liz ed na tio ns to m ak e th e best u se of t ech nolo gy. T ra nsna tio na l co rpo ra tio ns have a specia l r espo nsibilit y t o sm ooth t h e pa th o f ind ust ria liz atio n in th e na tio ns in wh ich t h ey o per ate. 6 9. E m er ging t ech nolo gies offer t h e pr om ise of h ig her pr od u ct ivity, incr eased ef ficiency , a nd d ecr eased po llu tio n, b u t m any b ring r isk s of new to xic ch em icals and wa stes and o f m ajo r accid ents of a t y pe and sca le bey ond pr esent co ping m ech anism s. T her e is an urg ent need f o r tig hter co ntro ls over t h e ex po rt o f h aza rd ou s ind ust ria l a nd a g ricu lt u ra l ch em icals. P resent co ntro ls over t h e du m ping o f h aza rd ou s wa stes shou ld b e tig htened . 70 . M any essent ial h um an need s ca n be net o nl y t h ro u gh g o o d s and ser vices provid ed b y ind ust ry , a nd t h e sh ift t o su staina ble dev elopm ent m ust b e po wer ed b y a co ntinu ing f lo w of wea lt h f r o m ind ust ry . ( S ee Ch ap te r 8 f o r a wid er d iscu ssion of t h ese issu es and reco mmend atio ns. ) 6. The Urban Challenge 71. B y t h e tu rn of t h e cent ury , a lm ost h alf o f h um anit y wil l l iv e in cities; th e wo rld o f t h e 21st cent ury wil l b e a l a rg el y u rb an wo rld . O ver o nl y 6 5 y ea rs, t h e dev eloping wo rld ‘s urb an po pu la tio n has incr eased t enf old , f r o m a ro u nd 10 0 m illio n in 1920 t o 1 bil lio n to d ay. I n 19 40 , one per son in 100 l iv ed in a cit y o f 1 m illio n or m ore inh ab it ant s; by 19 80 , o ne in 10 l iv ed in such a cit y. B et ween 1985 a nd t h e yea r 2 0 00, T hir d W orld cit ies could g ro w by a no th er t h ree- qu arter s of a b il lio n peo ple. T his su ggest s th at t h e dev eloping wo rld m ust , o ver t h e nex t f ew yea rs, incr ease by 6 5 per cent it s ca pa cit y t o pr od u ce and m ana ge its urb an inf ra st ru ct ure, ser vices, a nd sh elter m er ely t o m aint ain to d ay’s oft en extr em ely ina deq uate co nd itio ns. 72 . F ew city g o ver nm ents in th e dev eloping wo rld h ave th e po wer , r eso urces, a nd t r a ined per sonnel t o pr ovid e th eir r a pid ly g ro win g po pu la tio ns wit h t h e la nd , ser vices, a nd f a cil ities need ed f o r a n ad eq uate hum an lif e: clea n wa ter , sa nit atio n, sch ools, a nd t r a nspo rt. T he resu lt is m ush ro om ing il leg al set tlem ent s wit h pr im itiv e fa cil ities, incr eased o ver crowd ing , a nd r a m pa nt disea se link ed t o a n unh ealt h y env ironm ent. M any cit ies in ind ust ria l co unt ries also f a ce pr ob lem s – d et er iora ting inf ra st ru ct ure, e nv ironm ental d eg ra d atio n, inner -cit y d eca y, a nd neig hbou rh ood co lla pse. B ut wit h t h e m ea ns and r eso urces to t a ck le th is decl ine, t h e issu e fo r m ost ind ust ria l co unt ries is ult im atel y o n e of po lit ica l a nd so cia l ch oice. D ev eloping co unt ries are no t in th e sa me sit uatio n. T hey h ave a m ajo r u rb an cr isis on th eir h and s. 73. Go ver nm ents wil l need t o d ev elop ex plicit set tlem ent s st ra teg ies to g u id e th e pr ocess of u rb aniz atio n, t a k ing t h e pr essu re off t h e la rg est u rb an cent res and b u il ding u p sm aller t o wns and cit ies, m ore cl osel y int egra ting t h em wit h t h eir r u ra l h int erla nd s. T his wil l m ea n ex am ining a nd ch ang ing o th er po licies – t a x atio n, f o od pr icing , t r a nspo rta tio n, h ea lt h , ind ust ria liz atio n – t h at wo rk a g ainst t h e go als of set tlem ent s st ra teg ies. 74 . Go od cit y m ana gem ent r eq uir es decent ra liz atio n of f u nd s, po lit ica l po wer , a nd per sonnel – t o lo ca l a u th orit ies, wh ich a re best pl aced t o a ppr ecia te and m ana ge lo ca l need s. B ut t h e su staina ble 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 12/16 dev elopm ent o f cit ies will d epend o n closer wo rk wit h t h e m ajo rit ies of u rb an po or wh o a re th e tr u e cit y b u il der s, t a pping t h e sk ills, ener gies and r eso urces of neig hbou rh ood g ro u ps and t h ose in th e ‘inf orm al sect or’. M uch ca n be ach iev ed b y ‘sit e and ser vice’ sch emes th at pr ovid e hou seh old s wit h b asic services and h el p th em t o g et o n wit h b u il ding so und er h ou ses aro u nd th ese. ( S ee Ch ap te r 9 f o r a wid er d iscu ssion of t h ese issu es and r eco mmend atio ns. ) III. I n te rn atio n al C oop era tio n a n d I n st it u tio n al R efo rm 1. The Role of the International Economy 75 . T wo co nd itio ns must b e sa tisf ied b ef ore int erna tio na l eco nomic exch ang es can beco me benef icial f o r a ll inv olv ed . T he su staina bil it y o f eco system s on wh ich t h e glo b al eco nomy d epend s must b e gu ara nt eed . A nd t h e eco nomic pa rtner s m ust b e sa tisf ied t h at t h e basis of ex ch ang e is eq uit ab le. F or m any d ev eloping co unt ries, neit her co nd itio n is set . 76 . Gr owt h in many d ev eloping co unt ries is being st ifled b y d epr essed co mmod it y pr ices, protect ionism , int oler ab le deb t b u rd ens, a nd d ecl ining f lo ws of d ev elopm ent f ina nce. I f l iv ing stand ard s are to g ro w so a s to a llev iate po ver ty , t h ese tr end s m ust b e rev ersed . 77. A pa rticu la r r espo nsibilit y f a lls to t h e W orld B ank a nd t h e Int erna tio na l D ev elopm ent Asso ciatio n as th e m ain cond uit f o r m ult il ater al f ina nce to d ev eloping co unt ries. I n th e co ntex t o f co nsist ently incr eased f ina ncia l f lo ws, t h e W orld B ank ca n su ppo rt env ironm entally so und pr oject s and po licies. I n fina ncing st ru ct ura l a d ju st m ent , t h e Int erna tio na l M onet ary F und sh ou ld su ppo rt wid er a nd l o ng er t er m d ev elopm ent o b ject ives th an at pr esent : gro wt h, so cia l go als, a nd env ironm ental im pacts. 78 . T he pr esent l ev el o f d eb t ser vice of m any co unt ries, especia lly in Afr ica a nd L atin Am er ica , is no t co nsist ent wit h su staina ble dev elopm ent. D eb to rs are being r eq uir ed t o u se tr a d e su rpl uses to ser vice deb ts, a nd a re dra wing h ea vil y o n no n-renewa ble reso urces to d o so . U rg ent a ct io n is necessa ry t o a llev iate deb t b u rd ens in wa ys th at r epr esent a f a ir er sh aring b et ween both d eb to rs a nd l end ers of t h e respo nsibilit ies and b u rd ens. 79 . Cu rrent a rra ng em ent s fo r co mmod it ies could b e sig nifica ntly im proved : m ore co mpensa to ry fina ncing t o o ffset eco nomic sh ock s wo uld enco ura g e pr od u cer s to t a k e a l o ng -ter m v iew, a nd no t t o o ver pr od u ce commod it ies; and m ore assist ance could b e giv en fr o m d iv er sif ica tio n pr ogra m mes. Co mmod it y-specif ic arra ng em ent s ca n bu il d o n th e m od el o f t h e In ter na tio na l Tro pica l T im ber A greem ent, o ne of t h e fe w th at specif ically incl udes eco lo gica l co ncer ns 80 . M ult ina tio na l co mpa nies can pl ay a n im porta nt r o le in sustaina ble dev elopm ent, especia lly a s dev eloping co unt ries come to r el y m ore on fo reig n eq uit y ca pit al. B ut if t h ese compa nies are to h ave a po sitive inf lu ence on dev elopm ent, t h e neg otia ting ca pa cit y o f d ev eloping co unt ries vis a vis tr a nsna tio na ls m ust b e st reng th ened so t h ey ca n secu re ter ms wh ich r espect t h eir env ironm ental co ncer ns. 81. H owev er, t h ese specif ic mea su res must b e lo ca ted in a wid er co ntex t o f ef fect ive co oper atio n to pr od u ce an int erna tio na l eco nomic system g ea red t o g ro wt h a nd t h e el im ina tio n of wo rld po ver ty . ( S ee Ch ap te r 3 f o r a m ore det ail ed d iscu ssion of issu es and r eco mmend atio ns on th e int erna tio na l eco nomy.) 2. Managing the Commons 8 2. T ra d it io na l f o rm s of na tio na l so ver eig nty r a ise particu la r pr ob lem s in mana ging t h e ‘g lo b al co mmons’ a nd t h eir sh ared eco system s – t h e ocea ns, o u ter spa ce, a nd A nt arct ica . S om e pr ogress h as been mad e in all t h ree area s; much r em ains to b e done. 8 3. T he U N Co nference on th e Law of t h e S ea wa s th e m ost a m bit io us attem pt ev er t o pr ovid e an int erna tio na lly a g reed r eg im e fo r t h e m ana gem ent o f t h e ocea ns. A ll na tio ns shou ld r a tif y t h e L aw of t h e Sea T rea ty a s so on at po ssib le . F ish eries ag reem ents sh ou ld b e st reng th ened t o pr event cu rrent o ver ex ploit atio n, a s sh ou ld co nv ent ions to co ntro l a nd r eg ula te th e du m ping o f h aza rd ou s wa stes at sea . 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 13/16 84. T her e are gro wing co ncer ns ab ou t t h e m ana gem ent o f o rb it al spa ce, cent ering o n using sa tel lit e tech nolo gy f o r m onit oring pl ane ta ry sy stem s; on m ak ing t h e m ost ef fect ive use of t h e lim ited ca pa cit ies of g eo synch ro no us orb it f o r co mmunica tio ns satel lit es; and o n lim iting spa ce deb ris. T he orb it ing a nd t est ing o f wea pons in spa ce wo uld g rea tly incr ease th is deb ris. T he int erna tio na l co mmunit y sh ou ld seek t o d esig n and im plem ent a spa ce reg im e to ensu re th at spa ce rem ains a pea ceful env ironm ent f o r t h e benef it o f a ll. 8 5. A nt arct ica is mana ged u nd er t h e 19 59 A nt arct ica T rea ty . H owev er, m any na tio ns ou tsid e of th at pa ct v iew th e Trea ty S yst em a s to o l im ited , b oth in participa tio n and in th e sco pe of it s co nser va tio n m ea su res. T he Co mmissio n’s reco mmend atio ns dea l wit h t h e sa feg uard ing o f pr esent a ch iev em ent s; th e inco rpo ra tio n o f a ny m iner als dev elopm ent int o a m ana gem ent reg im e; and v a rio us opt ions fo r t h e fu tu re. ( S ee Ch ap te r 10 f o r m ore discu ssion in issu es and reco mmend atio ns on th e m ana gem ent o f t h e co mmons. ) 3. Peace, Security, Development, and the Environment 86. A m ong t h e dang ers fa cing t h e env ironm ent, t h e po ssib ilit y o f nu clea r wa r is und ou bted ly t h e gra vest . Cer ta in aspect s of t h e issu es of p ea ce and secu rit y b ea r d ir ect ly u po n th e co ncept o f su staina ble dev elopm ent. T he wh ole no tio n of secu rit y a s tr a d it io na lly u nd erstood in ter ms of po lit ica l a nd m ilit ary t h rea ts to na tio na l so ver eig nty – m ust b e ex pa nd ed t o incl ude th e gro wing im pacts of env ironm ental st ress – l o ca lly , na tio na lly , r eg iona lly , a nd g lo b ally . T her e are no m ilit ary so lu tio ns to ‘env ironm ental inse curit y’. 8 7. Go ver nm ents and int erna tio na l a g en cies shou ld a ssess th e co st-ef fect iveness, in ter ms of ach iev ing secu rit y, o f m oney spent o n arm am ent s co mpa red wit h m oney spent o n red ucing po ver ty o r r est oring a r a va g ed env ironm ent. 88. B ut t h e grea test need is to a ch iev e im proved r el atio ns am ong t h ose majo r po wer s ca pa ble of d epl oying wea pons of m ass dest ru ct io n. T his is need ed t o a ch iev e ag reem ent o n tig hter co ntro l over t h e pr olif er atio n and t est ing o f v a rio us ty pes of wea pons of m ass dest ru ct io n – nu clea r a nd no n nu clea r – incl uding t h ose th at h ave env ironm ental im plica tio ns. ( S ee Ch ap te r 11 f o r m ore d iscu ssion of issu es and r eco mmend atio ns on th e link s bet ween peace, secu rit y, d ev elopm ent, and t h e env ironm ent.) 4. Institutional and Legal Change 8 9. T he Repo rt t h at f o llo ws contains th ro u gh ou t ( a nd especia lly in Ch ap te r 12 ), m any specif ic reco mmend atio ns fo r inst itutio na l a nd l e g al ch ang e. T hese canno t b e ad eq uatel y su mmariz ed her e. H owev er, t h e Co mmissio n’s m ain pro po sals are em bod ied in six pr iorit y a rea s. 4.1 G ettin g a t t h e S ou rc e s 90 . Go ver nm ents m ust b eg in no w to m ak e th e key na tio na l, eco nomic, a nd sect ora l a g encies d ir ect ly r espo nsible and a cco unt ab le fo r ensu ring t h at t h eir po licies, pr ogra m mes, a nd b u dget s su ppo rt d ev elopm ent t h at is eco nomica ll y a nd eco lo gica lly su staina ble. 9 1. B y t h e sa me to ken, t h e va rio us reg iona l o rg aniz atio ns need t o d o m ore to int egra te env ironm ent f u lly in th eir g o als and a ct ivities. N ew reg iona l a rra ng em ent s wil l especia lly b e need ed a m ong d ev eloping co unt ries to d ea l wit h t r a nsb ou nd ary env ironm ental issu es. 92. A ll m ajo r int erna tio na l b od ies and a g encies shou ld ensu re th at t h eir pr ogra m mes enco ura g e and su ppo rt su staina ble dev elopm ent, a nd t h ey sh ou ld g rea tly im prove th eir co ord ina tio n and co oper atio n. T he Secr etary -Gener al o f t h e U nit ed N atio ns Org aniz atio n sh ou ld pr ovid e a h ig h lev el cent re of l ea der sh ip fo r t h e U N sy stem t o a ssess, a d vise, a ssist , a nd r epo rt o n pr ogress mad e to wa rd s th is go al. 4 .2 D ea li n g w it h t h e E ffe cts 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 14/16 93. Go ver nm ents sh ou ld a lso r einf orce th e ro les and ca pa cit ies of env ironm ental pr otect ion and reso urce mana gem ent a g encies. T his is need ed in many ind ust ria liz ed co unt ries, b u t m ost u rg ent ly in dev eloping co unt ries, wh ich w ill need a ssist ance in streng th ening t h eir inst itutio ns. The U N E nv ironm ent P ro gra m me (U N EP) sh ou ld b e st reng th ened a s th e pr incipa l so urce on env ironm ental d ata , a ssessm ent, a nd r epo rting a nd a s th e pr incipa l a d vo ca te and a g ent f o r ch ang e and int erna tio na l co oper atio n on cr itica l env ironm ent a nd na tu ra l r eso urce protect ion issu es. 4.3 A sse ssing G lo b al R isk s 94. T he ca pa cit y t o id ent ify, a ssess, a nd r epo rt o n risk s of ir rev ersib le dam ag e to na tu ra l sy stem s and t h rea ts to t h e su rv iv al, secu rit y, a nd wel l b eing o f t h e wo rld co mmunit y m ust b e ra pid ly r einf orced a nd ex tend ed. Go ver nm ents, i nd ivid ually a nd co llect ively, h ave th e pr incipa l respo nsibilit y t o d o t h is. U N EP’s Earth w atch pr ogra m me sh ou ld b e th e cent re of l ea der sh ip in th e U N sy stem o n risk a ssessm ent 95. H owev er, g iv en th e po lit ica lly sensit ive na tu re of m any o f t h e m ost cr itica l r isk s, t h er e is also a need f o r a n ind epend ent b u t co mplem ent ary ca pa cit y t o a ssess and r epo rt o n cr itica l g lo b al risk s. A new interna tio na l pr ogra m me fo r co oper atio n am ong l a rg el y no n-go ver nm ental o rg aniz atio ns, scient ific bod ies, a nd ind ust ry g ro u ps shou ld t h er efore be est ab lish ed f o r t h is pu rpo se. 4.4 M ak in g I n fo rm ed C hoic e s 96. M ak ing t h e dif ficu lt ch oices involv ed in ach iev ing su staina ble dev elopm ent wil l d epend o n th e wid espr ead su ppo rt a nd inv olv em ent o f a n inf orm ed pu blic and o f N GO s, t h e scient ific co mmunit y, a nd ind ust ry . T heir r ig hts, r o les and pa rticipa tio n in dev elopm ent pl anning , decisio n-mak ing , a nd pr oject im plem ent atio n sh ou ld b e ex pa nd ed. 4.5 P ro vid in g t h e L eg a l M ea n s 97. N atio na l a nd int erna tio na l l a w is being r a pid ly o u td ist anced b y t h e accel erating pa ce and ex pa nd ing sca le of im pacts on th e eco lo gica l b asis of d ev elopm ent. Go ver nm ents no w need t o f il l m ajo r g aps in exist ing na tio na l a nd int erna tio na l l a w rel ated t o t h e env ironm ent, t o f ind wa ys to r eco gniz e and pr otect t h e rig hts of pr esen t a nd f u tu re gener atio ns to a n env ironm ent a d eq uate fo r t h eir h ea lt h a nd wel l- b eing , t o pr epa re und er U N a u spices a u niv ersa l D ecl ara tio n on env ironm ental pr otect ion and su staina ble dev elopm ent a nd a su bseq uent Co nvent ion, a nd t o st reng th en proced ures fo r a vo id ing o r r eso lv ing d ispu tes on env ironm ent a nd r eso urce m ana gem ent issu es. 4.6 I n ve st in g i n o u r Fu tu re 9 8 . O ver t h e pa st d eca de, t h e over all co st-ef fect iveness of inv estment s in halt ing po llu tio n has b een dem onst ra ted . T he esca la ting eco nomic and eco lo gica l d am ag e co sts of no t inv esting in env ironm ental pr otect ion and im provem ent h ave also b een repea ted ly d em onst ra ted – o ft en in grim t o lls of f lo od a nd f a m ine. B ut t h er e are la rg e fina ncia l im plica tio ns: fo r r enewa ble ener gy d ev elopm ent, po llu tio n co ntro l, a nd a ch iev ing l ess reso urce int ensiv e fo rm s of a g ricu lt u re. 9 9. M ult il ater al f ina ncia l inst itutio ns have a cr ucia l r o le to pl ay. T he W orld B ank is pr esent ly r eo rient ing it s pr ogra m mes to wa rd s grea ter env ironm ental co ncer ns. T his sh ou ld b e acco mpa nied b y a f u nd am ent al co mmitm ent t o su staina ble dev elopm ent b y t h e Bank . I t is also essent ial t h at t h e Reg iona l D ev elopm ent B ank s and t h e Int erna tio na l M onet ary F und inco rpo ra te sim ilar o b ject ives in th eir po licies and pr ogra m mes. A new priorit y a nd f o cu s is also need ed in bil ater al a id a g encies. 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 15/16 100. Giv en th e lim itatio ns on incr easing pr esent f lo ws of int erna tio na l a id , pr opo sals fo r secu ring a d dit io na l r ev enu e fr o m t h e use of int erna tio na l co mmons and na tu ra l r eso urces shou ld no w be ser iousl y co nsid ered b y g o ver nm ents. IV . A C all f o r A ctio n 10 1. O ver t h e co urse of t h is cent ury , t h e rel atio nsh ip bet ween th e hum an wo rld a nd t h e pl anet th at su stains it h as und ergo ne a pr ofo u n d ch ang e. 102. W hen th e cent ury b eg an, neit her h um an nu mber s no r t ech nolo gy h ad t h e po wer r a d ica lly t o a lt er pl anet ary sy stem s. A s th e cent ury cl oses, no t o nl y d o v a st ly incr eased h um an nu mber s and th eir a ct ivities have th at po wer , b u t m ajo r, u nint ended ch ang es are occu rr ing in th e atm osph ere, in soils, in wa ter s, a m ong pl ant s and a nim als, a nd in th e rel atio nsh ips am ong a ll o f t h ese. T he ra te of ch ang e is ou tst ripping t h e ab il it y o f scient ific discipl ines and o u r cu rr ent ca pa bil it ies to a ssess and a d vise. I t is fr u st ra ting t h e att em pts of po lit ica l a nd eco nomic inst itutio ns, wh ich evolv ed in a d if fer ent , m ore fr a g m ent ed wo rld , t o a d apt a nd co pe. I t d eepl y wo rries many peo ple wh o a re seek ing wa ys to pl ace th ose concer ns on th e po lit ica l a g end as. 10 3. T he onu s lies with no o ne gro u p of n atio ns. D ev eloping co unt ries fa ce th e ob vio us lif e- th rea tening ch alleng es of d eser tif ica tio n, d ef orest atio n, a nd po llu tio n, a nd end ure m ost o f t h e po ver ty a sso ciated wit h env ironm ental d eg ra d atio n. T he ent ire hum an fa m ily o f na tio ns wo uld su ffer f r o m t h e disa ppea ra nce of r a in fo rest s in th e tr o pics, t h e lo ss of pl ant a nd a nim al species, a nd ch ang es in ra inf all pa tter ns. I nd ust ria l na tio ns fa ce th e lif e- th rea tening ch alleng es of t o xic ch em icals, t o xic wa stes, a nd a cid ifica tio n. A ll na tio ns may su ffer f r o m t h e rel ea ses by ind ust ria liz ed co unt ries of ca rb on dio xid e and o f g ases th at r ea ct wit h t h e ozo ne la yer , a nd f r o m any f u tu re wa r f o u gh t wit h t h e nu clea r a rsena ls co ntro lled b y t h ose natio ns. A ll na tio ns wil l h ave a r o le to pl ay in chang ing t r end s, a nd in rig hting a n int erna tio na l eco nomic system t h at incr eases ra th er t h an decr eases ineq ualit y, t h at incr eases ra th er t h an decr eases number s of po or a nd h ung ry . 10 4. T he nex t f ew deca des are cr ucia l. T he tim e has co me to b rea k o u t o f pa st pa tter ns. A ttem pts to m aint ain socia l a nd eco lo gica l st ab il it y t h ro u gh o ld a ppr oach es to d ev elopm ent a nd env ironm ental pr otect ion wil l incr ease instab il it y. S ecu rit y m ust b e so ugh t t h ro u gh ch ang e. T he Co mmissio n has no ted a nu mber o f a ct io ns th at m ust b e ta k en to r ed uce risk s to su rv iv al a nd t o pu t f u tu re dev elopm ent o n pa th s th at a re su staina ble. Yet we are awa re th at su ch a r eo rient atio n on a co ntinu ing b asis is sim ply b ey ond t h e rea ch o f pr esent d ecisio n-mak ing st ru ct ures and inst itutio na l a rra ng em ent s, b oth na tio na l a nd int erna tio na l. 10 5. T his Co mmissio n has been caref ul t o b ase ou r r eco mmend atio ns on th e rea lit ies of pr esent inst itutio ns, o n wh at ca n and m ust b e acco mplish ed t o d ay. B ut t o k eep opt ions open fo r f u tu re g ener atio ns, t h e pr esent g ener atio n m ust b eg in no w, a nd b eg in to get her . 10 6. T o a ch iev e th e need ed ch ang es, we bel iev e th at a n act ive fo llo w- up of t h is repo rt is im per ativ e. I t is wit h t h is in mind t h at we call f o r t h e U N Gener al A ssem bly , u po n du e co nsid eratio n, t o t r a nsf orm t h is repo rt in to a U N P ro gra m me on Su st aina ble D ev elopm ent. Specia l f o llo w- up co nferences could b e in itia ted a t t h e reg iona l l ev el. W ithin an appr opr iate per iod a ft er t h e pr esent atio n of t h is repo rt t o t h e Gener al A ssem bly , a n int erna tio na l co nference co uld b e co nv ened t o r ev iew progress mad e, a nd t o pr om ote fo llo w up arra ng em ent s th at wil l b e need ed t o set b ench mark s and t o m aint ain hum an pr ogress. 10 7. F ir st a nd f o rem ost , t h is Co mmissio n has been concer ned wit h peo ple – o f a ll co unt ries and a ll wa lk s of l if e. A nd it is to peo ple th at we ad dress ou r r epo rt. T he ch ang es in hum an attit udes th at we call f o r d epend o n a v a st ca mpa ign of ed uca tio n, d eb ate, a nd pu blic pa rticipa tio n. T his ca mpa ign m ust st art no w if su staina ble hum an pr ogress is to b e ach iev ed. 108. T he M em ber s of t h e W orld Co mmissio n on Env ironm ent a nd D ev elopm ent ca me fr o m 2 1 ver y d if fer ent na tio ns. I n ou r d iscu ssions, we disa greed o ft en on det ail s and pr iorit ies. B ut despit e ou r wid ely d if fer ing b ack gro u nd s a nd v a ry ing na tio na l a nd int erna tio na l r espo nsibilit ies, we wer e ab le to a g ree to t h e lines alo ng wh ich ch ang e m ust b e dra wn. 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 16/16 109. W e are una nim ou s in ou r co nv ict ion th at t h e secu rit y, wel l- b eing , a nd v er y su rv iv al o f t h e pl anet d epend o n su ch ch ang es, no w.
Identify, in this and in other sustainable development documents you may wish to read, the underlying world view, value, and ethical assumptions being made. To what sort of theory do they subscribe, a
6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 1/16 Our C om mon Fu tu re , Fr om O ne E arth t o O ne W orld A n O ve rv ie w b y t h e W orld C om m issi on o n E nvir o n m en t a n d D eve lo p m en t I. T he G lo b a l C halle n ge 1. Successes and failures 2. The Interlocking Crises 3. Sustainable Development 4. The Institutional Gaps II . T he P oli c y D ir e ctio n s 1. Population and Human Resources 2. Food Security: Sustaining the Potential 3. Species and Ecosystems: Resources for Development 4. Energy: Choices for Environment and Development 5. Industry: Producing More with Less 6. The Urban Challenge III . I n te rn atio n al C oop era tio n a n d I n stit u tio n al R efo rm 1. The Role of the International Economy 2. Managing the Commons 3. Peace, Security, Development, and the Environment 4. Institutional and Legal Change 4 .1 G ettin g a t t h e S ou rc e s 4 .2 D ea li n g w it h t h e E ffe cts 4 .3 A sse ssin g G lo b a l R is k s 4 .4 M akin g I n fo rm ed C hoic e s 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 2/16 4.5 P ro vid in g t h e L eg a l M ea n s 4.6 I n vestin g i n o u r Fu tu re IV . A C all f o r A ctio n 1. I n th e m iddle of t h e 20 th cent ury , we sa w ou r pl anet f r o m spa ce fo r t h e fir st t im e. H ist oria ns m ay ev ent ually f ind t h at t h is visio n had a g rea ter im pact o n th ou gh t t h an did t h e Co per nica n rev olu tio n of t h e 16 th cent ury , wh ich u pset t h e hum an sel f- im ag e by r ev ea ling t h at t h e Earth is no t t h e cent re of t h e univ erse. F ro m spa ce, we see a sm all a nd f r a g il e ball d om ina ted no t b y h um an act ivity a nd ed ifice bu t b y a pa tter n of cl ou ds, o cea ns, g reener y, a nd so ils. H um anit y’s ina bil it y t o f it it s act ivities into t h at pa tte rn is ch ang ing pl anet ary sy stem s, f u nd am ent ally . M any su ch ch ang es are acco mpa nied b y l if e- th rea tening h aza rd s. T his new rea lit y, f r o m wh ich t h er e is no esca pe, m ust b e reco gniz ed – a nd m an ag ed . 2. F ortu na tel y, t h is new rea lit y co incid es wit h m ore po sitive dev elopm ents new to t h is cent ury . W e ca n m ove inf orm atio n and g o od s fa st er a ro u nd t h e glo b e th an ev er b ef ore; we can pr od u ce m ore fo od a nd m ore go od s wit h l ess invest m ent o f r eso urces; ou r t ech nolo gy a nd science giv es us at l ea st, t h e po tent ial t o l o ok d eeper int o a nd b et ter u nd erstand na tu ra l sy stem s. F ro m spa ce, we ca n see and st udy t h e Earth a s an org anism wh ose hea lt h d epend s on th e hea lt h o f a l it s pa rts. W e have th e po wer t o r eco ncil e hum an affa ir s wit h na tu ra l l a ws and t o t h riv e in th e pr ocess. I n th is ou r cu lt u ra l a nd spir itual h er itag es ca n reinf orce ou r eco nomic int erest s and su rv iv al im per ativ es. 3. T his Co mmissio n bel iev es th at peo ple ca n bu il d a f u tu re th at is more pr osper ou s, m ore ju st , and m ore secu re. O ur r epo rt, O ur Co mmo n Fu tu re , is no t a pr ed ict ion of ev er incr easing env ironm ental d eca y, po ver ty , a nd h ard sh ip in an ev er m ore po llu ted wo rld a m ong ev er decr easing r eso urces. W e see inst ead t h e po ssib ilit y f o r a new era o f eco nomic gro wt h, o ne th at m ust b e based o n po licies th at su stain an d ex pa nd t h e env ironm ental r eso urce base. A nd we b el iev e su ch g ro wt h t o b e ab so lu tel y essent ial t o r el iev e th e grea t po ver ty t h at is deepening in m uch o f t h e dev eloping wo rld . 4. B ut t h e Co mmissio n’s hope fo r t h e fu tu re is co nd itio na l o n decisiv e po lit ica l a ct io n no w to b eg in mana ging env ironm ental r eso urces to ensu re both su staina ble hum an pr ogress and h um an su rv iv al. W e are no t f o reca sting a f u tu re; we are ser ving a no tice – a n urg ent no tice based o n th e la test a nd b est scient ific evidence – t h at t h e tim e has co me to t a k e th e decisio ns need ed t o secu re th e reso urces to su stain th is and co ming g ener atio ns. W e do no t o ffer a d et ail ed b lu epr int f o r act io n, b u t inst ead a pa th wa y b y wh ich t h e peo ples of t h e wo rld m ay enl arg e th eir sph eres of co oper atio n. I. T he G lo b al C halle n ge 1. Successes and failures 5. T hose lo oking f o r su ccess and sig ns of h ope can find m any : inf ant m orta lit y is fa lling ; h um an lif e ex pect ancy is incr easing ; th e pr opo rtio n of t h e wo rld ‘s ad u lt s wh o ca n rea d a nd wr ite is cl im bing ; th e pr opo rtio n of ch ildren starting sch ool is rising ; and g lo b al f o od pr od u ct io n incr eases fa st er t h an th e po pu la tio n gro w s. 6. B ut t h e sa me pr ocesses th at h ave pr od u ced t h ese gains have giv en rise to t r end s th at t h e pl anet a nd it s peo ple ca nno t l o ng b ea r. T hese have tr a d it io na lly b een div id ed int o f a il ures of ‘d ev elopm ent’ a nd f a il ures in th e m ana gem ent o f o u r h um an env ironm ent. O n th e dev elopm ent side, in ter ms of a b so lu te nu mber s th er e are m ore hung ry peo ple in th e wo rld t h an ev er b ef ore, a nd t h eir nu mber s are incr easing . S o a re th e nu mber s wh o ca nno t r ea d o r wr ite, t h e nu mber s wit hou t sa fe wa ter o r sa fe and so und h om es, a nd t h e nu mber s sh ort o f wo od fu el wit h wh ich t o co ok a nd wa rm t h em selves. T he gap bet ween rich a nd po or na tio ns is wid ening – no t sh rink ing – a nd t h er e is lit tle pr ospect , g iv en present t r end s and inst itutio na l a rra ng em ent s, t h at t h is pr ocess wil l b e rev ersed . 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 3/16 7. T her e are also env ironm ental t r end s th at t h rea ten to r a d ica lly a lt er t h e pl anet , t h at t h rea ten t h e liv es of m any species upo n it. incl uding t h e hum an species. E ach y ea r a no th er 6 m illio n hect ares of pr od u ct ive dry la nd t u rns into wo rth less deser t. O ver t h ree deca des, t h is wo uld a m ou nt t o a n area r o u gh ly a s la rg e as Sau di A ra b ia . M ore th an 11 millio n hect ares of f o rest s are d est ro yed y ea rly , a nd t h is, o ver t h ree deca des, wo uld eq ual a n area a b ou t t h e siz e of I nd ia. M uch of t h is fo rest is co nv erted t o l o w- gra d e fa rm la nd u na ble to su ppo rt t h e fa rm er s wh o set tle it. I n E uro pe, a cid pr ecipit atio n kil ls fo rest s an d l a k es and d am ag es th e artist ic and a rch itect ura l h er itag e of na tio ns; it m ay h ave acid ified v a st t r a ct s of so il b ey ond r ea sona ble hope of r epa ir. T he bu rning o f f o ssil f u el s pu ts int o t h e atm osph ere ca rb on dio xid e, wh ich is causing g ra d u al g lo b al wa rm ing . T his ‘g reenh ou se effect ‘ m ay b y ea rly nex t cent ury h ave incr eased a ver ag e glo b al tem per atu res eno ugh t o sh ift a g ricu lt u ra l pr od u ct io n area s, r a ise sea l ev els to f lo od co ast al cit ies, and d isr upt na tio na l eco nomies. O th er ind ust ria l g ases th rea ten to d epl ete th e pl anet ‘s pr otect ive ozo ne shiel d t o su ch a n ex tent t h at t h e nu mber o f h um an and a nim al ca ncer s wo uld r ise sharpl y and t h e ocea ns’ f o od ch ain wo uld b e disr upt ed , ind ust ry a nd a g ricu lt u re pu t t o xic su bst ances into th e hum an fo od ch ain and int o u nd ergro u nd wa ter t a b les bey ond r ea ch o f cl ea nsing . 8. T her e has been a g ro wing r ea liz atio n in na tio na l g o ver nm ents and m ult il ater al inst itutio ns th at it is im possib le to sepa ra te eco nomic d ev elopm ent issu es fr o m env ironm ent issu es; many fo rm s of d ev elopm ent er od e th e env ironm ental r eso urces upo n wh ich t h ey m ust b e based , a nd env ironm ental d eg ra d atio n ca n und ermine eco nomic dev elopm ent. P over ty is a m ajo r ca use and ef fect o f g lo b al env ironm ental pr ob lem s. I t is th er efore fu til e to a ttem pt t o d ea l wit h env ironm ental pr ob lem s wit hou t a b ro ad er per spect ive th at enco mpa sses th e fa ct ors und erly ing wo rld po ver ty a nd int erna tio na l ineq ualit y. 9 . T hese concer ns wer e beh ind t h e est ab lish ment in 1983 of t h e W orld Co mmissio n on E nv ironm ent a nd D ev elopm ent b y t h e U N Gener al A ssem bly . T he Co mmissio n is an ind epend ent b od y, l ink ed t o b u t o u tsid e th e co ntro l o f g o ver nm ents and t h e U N sy stem . T he Co mmissio n’s m and ate gave it t h ree ob je ct ives: to r e- ex am ine th e cr itica l env ironm ent a nd d ev elopm ent issu es and t o f o rm ula te rea list ic propo sals fo r d ea ling wit h t h em ; to pr opo se new fo rm s of int erna tio na l co oper atio n on th ese issu es th at wil l inf lu ence policies and ev ent s in th e dir ect ion of need ed ch ang es; and t o r a ise t h e lev els of u nd erstand ing a nd co mmitm ent t o a ct io n of ind ivid uals, v o lu nt ary o rg aniz atio ns, b u sinesses, inst itutes, a nd g o ver nm ents. 10. T hro u gh o u r d el ib er atio ns and t h e test imony o f peo ple at t h e pu blic hea ring s we hel d o n fiv e co ntinent s, a ll t h e co mmissio ners ca me to f o cu s on one cent ra l t h em e: many pr esent dev elopm ent t r end s lea ve incr easing nu mber s of peo ple po or a nd v u lner ab le, wh ile at t h e sa me tim e deg ra d ing t h e env ironm ent. H ow can su ch d ev elopm ent ser ve nex t cent ury ‘s wo rld o f t wice a s m any peo ple rel ying o n th e sa me env ironm ent? This rea liz atio n bro ad ened o u r v iew of d ev elopm ent. W e ca me to see it no t in its r est rict ed co ntex t o f eco nomic gro wt h in dev eloping co unt ries. W e ca me to see th at a new dev elopm ent pa th wa s req uir ed , o ne th at su stained h um an pr ogress not j u st in a f ew pieces fo r a f ew y ea rs, b u t f o r t h e ent ire pl anet int o t h e dist ant f u tu re. T hus ‘su staina ble dev elopm ent’ b eco mes a g o al no t j u st f o r t h e ‘d ev eloping ‘ na tio ns, b u t f o r ind ust ria l o nes as wel l. 2. The Interlocking Crises 11. U nt il r ecent ly , t h e pl anet wa s a l a rg e wo rld in wh ich h um an act ivities and t h eir ef fect s wer e neatly co mpa rtm ent aliz ed wit hin natio ns , wit hin sect ors (ener gy, a g ricu lt u re, t r a d e) , a nd wit hin bro ad a rea s of co ncer n (env ironm ent, ec ono mics, so cia l) . T hese compa rtm ent s have beg un to d isso lv e. T his appl ies in particu la r t o t h e v a rio us glo b al ‘cr ises’ t h at h ave seiz ed pu blic co ncer n, particu la rly o ver t h e pa st d eca de. T hese are no t sepa ra te cr ises: an env ironm ental cr isis, a d ev elopm ent cr isis, a n ener gy cr isis. T hey a re all o ne. 12 . T he pl anet is pa ssing t h ro u gh a per iod o f d ra m atic gro wt h a nd f u nd am ent al ch ang e. O ur h um an wo rld o f 5 b il lio n m ust m ak e ro om in a f init e env ironm ent f o r a no th er h um an wo rld . T he po pu la tio n co uld st ab il iz e at b et ween 8 a nd 14 b il lio n so metim e nex t cent ury , a cco rd ing t o U N pr oject ions. M ore th an 90 per cent o f t h e incr ease wil l o ccu r in th e po orest co unt ries, a nd 9 0 per cent o f t h at g ro wt h in alr ea dy b u rst ing ci ties. 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 4/16 13. E co no mic act ivity h as m ult ipl ied t o cr ea te a $ 13 tr il lio n wo rld eco nomy, a nd t h is co uld g ro w fiv e to t enf old in th e co ming h alf cent ury . I nd ust ria l pr od u ct io n has gro wn more th an fif ty fo ld o ver t h e pa st cent ury , f o u r-fif th s of t h is gro wt h since 1950 . S u ch f ig ures ref lect a nd pr esa ge pr ofo u nd im pacts upo n th e bio sph ere, a s th e wo rld inv ests in hou ses, t r a nspo rt, f a rm s, a nd ind ust ries. M uch o f t h e eco nomic gro wt h pu lls ra w mater ial f r o m f o rest s, so ils, sea s, a nd wa ter wa ys. T he W orld Co mmissio n on Env ironm ent a nd D ev elopm ent f ir st m et in Oct ob er 19 84. and pu blish ed it s R epo rt 9 0 0 d ays la ter , in Apr il 19 87. O ver t h ose few days: T he dro u gh t- tr ig ger ed , env ironm ent-d ev elopm ent cr isis in Afr ica pea ked , pu tting 36 m illio n peo ple at r isk , k il ling p er haps a m illio n. A l ea k f r o m a pest icides fa ct ory in Bhopa l, I nd ia, k il led m ore th an 2,0 00 peo ple and b lind ed a nd inj ured o ver 2 0 0,0 00 m ore. L iq uid g as ta nk s ex plod ed in Mex ico Cit y, k il ling 1, 000 a nd l ea ving t h ou sa nd s more hom eless. The Ch erno byl nu clea r r ea ctor ex plosio n sent nu clea r f a llo u t a cr oss Euro pe, incr easing t h e risk s of f u tu re hum an ca ncer s. Agricu lt u ra l ch em icals, so lv ent s, a nd m ercu ry f lo wed int o t h e Rhine Riv er d u ring a wa reh ou se fir e in Swit zer la nd , k il ling m illio ns of f ish a nd t h rea tening d rink ing water in th e Fed eral R epu blic of Ger many a nd t h e N et her la nd s. An est imated 6 0 m illio n peo ple died o f d ia rrh oea l d isea ses rel ated t o u nsa fe d rink ing wa ter a nd m alnu tr it io n; most o f t h e vict im s wer e ch ildren. 14 . A m ainspr ing o f eco nomic gro wt h is new tech nolo gy, a nd wh ile th is tech nolo gy o ffer s th e po tent ial f o r sl owing t h e dang erou sl y r a p id co nsu mpt ion of f init e reso urces, it a lso ent ail s hig h risk s, incl uding new fo rm s of po llu tio n and t h e int ro d u ct io n to t h e pl anet o f new va ria tio ns of l if e fo rm s th at co uld ch ang e ev olu tio na ry pa th wa ys. M ea nwh ile, t h e ind ust ries most h ea vil y r el ia nt on env ironm ental r eso urces and m ost h ea vil y po llu ting a re gro wing m ost r a pid ly in th e dev eloping wo rld , wh ere th er e is both m ore urg ency f o r g ro wt h a nd l ess capa cit y t o m inim ize dam ag ing sid e ef fect s. 15. T hese rel ated ch ang es have lo ck ed t h e glo b al eco nomy a nd g lo b al eco lo gy t o geth er in new wa ys. W e have in th e pa st b een concer ned a b ou t t h e im pacts of eco nomic gro wt h u po n th e env ironm ent. W e are no w fo rced t o co ncer n ou rsel ves wit h t h e im pacts of eco lo gica l st ress – deg ra d atio n of so ils, wa ter r eg im es, a tm osph ere, a nd f o rest s upo n ou r eco nomic prospect s. W e have in th e m ore recent pa st b een fo rced t o f a ce up to a sh arp incr ease in eco nomic int erdepend ence am ong na tio ns. W e are no w fo rced t o a ccu stom o u rsel ves to a n accel erating eco lo gica l int erdepend ence am ong na tio ns. E co lo gy a nd eco nomy a re beco ming ev er m ore int erwo ven lo ca lly , r eg iona lly , na tio na lly , a nd g lo b ally int o a sea mless net o f ca uses and ef fect s. 16. I m po ver ish ing t h e lo ca l r eso urce base ca n im pover ish wid er a rea s: def orest atio n by h ig hla nd fa rm er s ca uses flo od ing o n lo wl and f a rm s; fa ct ory po llu tio n ro b s lo ca l f ish ermen of t h eir ca tch . Su ch g rim l o ca l cy cles now oper ate na tio na lly a nd r eg iona lly . D ry la nd d eg ra d atio n send s environm ental r ef ugees in th eir m illio ns acr oss natio na l b ord er s. D ef orest atio n in Latin Am er ica and A sia is causing m ore flo od s, a nd m ore dest ru ct ive flo od s, in downh ill, d ownst rea m na tio ns. Acid pr ecipit atio n and nu clea r f a llo u t h ave spr ead a cr oss th e bord er s of E uro pe. S im ilar ph eno mena a re em erging o n a g lo b al sca le, su ch a s glo b al wa rm ing a nd l o ss of o zo ne. Int erna tio na lly t r a d ed h aza rd ou s ch em icals ent ering f o od s are th em selves int erna tio na lly t r a d ed . In th e nex t cent ury , t h e env ironm ental p ressu re ca using po pu la tio n m ovem ent s m ay b e incr ease sh arpl y, wh ile barrier s to t h at m ovem ent m ay b e ev en fir m er t h an th ey a re no w. 17. O ver t h e pa st f ew deca des, l if e- th rea tening env ironm ental co ncer ns have su rfa ced in th e dev eloping wo rld . Co unt ry sid es are co ming u nd er pr essu re fr o m incr easing nu mber s of f a rm er s 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 5/16 and t h e la nd less. Cit ies are fil ling wit h pe opl e, ca rs, a nd f a ct ories. Yet a t t h e sa me tim e th ese dev eloping co unt ries ou st o per ate in a wo rld in wh ich t h e reso urces gap bet ween most d ev eloping a nd ind ust ria l na tio ns is wid ening , in wh ich t h e ind ust ria l wo rld d om ina tes in th e ru le- m ak ing o f so me key int erna tio na l b od ies and in wh ich t h e ind ust ria l wo rld h as alr ea dy u sed m uch o f t h e pl anet ‘s eco lo gica l ca pit al. T his ineq ualit y is th e pl anet ‘s m ain ‘env ironm ental’ pr ob lem ; it is also it s m ain ‘d ev elopm ent’ pr ob lem . 18. I nt erna tio na l eco nomic rel atio nsh ips pose a pa rticu la r pr ob lem f o r env ironm ental m ana gem ent in many d ev eloping co unt ries. A gricu lt u re, f o rest ry , ener gy pr od u ct io n, a nd m ining gener ate at l ea st h alf t h e gro ss natio na l pr od u ct o f m any d ev eloping co unt ries and a cco unt f o r ev en la rg er sh ares of l iv elih ood s and em ploym ent . E xpo rts of na tu ra l r eso urces rem ain a l a rg e fa ct or in th eir eco nomies, especia lly f o r t h e lea st d ev eloped . M ost o f t h ese count ries fa ce eno rm ou s eco nomic pressu res, b oth int erna tio na l a nd d om est ic, t o o ver ex ploit t h eir env ironm ental r eso urce base. 19 . T he recent cr isis in Afr ica b est a nd m ost t r a g ica lly il lu st ra tes th e wa ys in wh ich eco nomics and eco lo gy ca n int eract d est ru ct ively a nd t r ip int o d isa ster . T rig ger ed b y d ro u gh t, it s rea l ca uses lie deeper . T hey a re to b e fo u nd in part in natio na l po licies th at g ave to o l it tle attent ion, t o o l a te, t o t h e need s of sm allh old er a g ricu lt u re and t o t h e th rea ts po sed b y r a pid ly r ising po pu la tio ns. Their r o ots ex tend a lso t o a g lo b al eco nomic system t h at t a k es more ou t o f a po or co ntinent t h an it pu ts in. D eb ts th at t h ey ca nno t pa y f o rce Afr ica n na tio ns rel ying o n co mmod it y sa les to o ver use th eir f r a g il e so ils, t h us tu rning g o od l a nd t o d eser t. T ra d e barrier s in th e wea lt h y na tio ns – a nd in m any d ev eloping na tio ns – m ak e it h ard f o r A fr ica n na tio ns to sel l t h eir g o o d s fo r r ea sona ble r et urns, pu tting y et m ore pr essu re on eco lo gica l sy stem s. A id f r o m d ono r na tio ns has no t o nl y been inadeq uate in sca le, b u t t o o o ft en has ref lect ed t h e pr iorit ies of t h e na tio ns giv ing t h e aid , ra th er t h an th e need s of t h e recipient s. The Co mmissio n has so ugh t wa ys in wh ich g lo b al d ev elopm ent ca n be pu t o n a su staina ble pa th int o t h e 21st Cent ury . S om e 5,0 00 d ays wil l el apse bet ween th e pu blica tio n of o u r r epo rt a nd t h e fir st d ay o f t h e 21st Cent ury . W hat env ironm ental cr ises lie in store over t h ose 5,0 00 d ays? D uring t h e 19 70 s, t wice as m any peo ple su ffer ed ea ch y ea r f r o m ‘na tu ra l’ d isa ster s as d u ring t h e 19 60 s. T he disa ster s m ost d ir ect ly a sso ciated wit h env ironm ent/developm ent m ism ana gem ent – d ro u gh ts and f lo od s – a ffect ed t h e m ost peo ple and incr eased m ost sh arpl y in ter ms of nu mber s affect ed. S om e 18 .5 m illio n peo ple wer e affect ed b y d ro u gh t a nnu ally in th e 19 60 s, 2 4 .4 m illio n in th e 19 70 s. T her e wer e 5.2 m illio n flo od v ict im s yea rly in th e 19 60 s, 15 .4 m illio n in th e 19 70 s. N um ber s of v ict im s of cy clones and ea rth qu ak es also sh ot u p as gro wing nu mber s of po or peo ple bu il t u nsa fe hou ses on dang erou s gro u nd . The resu lt s are no t in fo r t h e 19 60 s. B ut w e have seen 35 b il lio n afflict ed b y d ro u gh t in A fr ica a lo ne and t ens of m illio ns affect ed b y t h e bet ter m ana ged a nd t h us less- pu bliciz ed I nd ian dro u gh t. F lo od s have pou red o ff t h e def orest ed A nd es and H im ala ya s wit h incr easing f o rce. T he 19 60 s seem d est ined t o sweep th is dir e tr end o n int o a cr isis- fil led 19 90 s. 20 . T he pr od u ct io n base of o th er d ev eloping wo rld a rea s su ffer s sim ilarly f r o m b oth l o ca l f a il ures a nd f r o m t h e wo rk ing s of int erna tio na l eco nomic system s. A s a co nseq uence of t h e ‘d eb t cr isis’ o f L atin Am er ica , t h at co ntinent ‘s na tu ra l r eso urces are no w being u sed no t f o r d ev elopm ent b u t t o m eet f ina ncia l o b lig atio ns to cr ed itors ab ro ad . T his appr oach t o t h e deb t pr ob lem is sh ort- sig hted f r o m sev eral st and point s: eco nomic, po lit ica l, a nd env ironm ental. I t r eq uir es rel ativ ely po or co unt ries sim ult a neo usl y t o a ccept g ro wing po ver ty wh ile ex po rting g ro wing a m ou nt s of sca rce reso urces. 2 1. A m ajo rit y o f d ev eloping co unt ries now have lo wer per ca pit a inco mes th an wh en th e deca de beg an. R ising po ver ty a nd u nem ploym ent h ave incr eased pr essu re on env ironm ental r eso urces a s m ore peo ple have been fo rced t o r el y m ore dir ect ly u po n th em . M any g o ver nm ents have cu t 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 6/16 back ef fo rts to pr otect t h e env ironm ent a nd t o b ring eco lo gica l co nsid eratio ns into d ev elopm ent planning . 22. T he deepening a nd wid ening env ironm ental cr isis present s a t h rea t t o na tio na l secu rit y – a nd ev en surv iv al – t h at m ay b e grea ter t h an wel l- a rm ed , il l- d ispo sed neig hbou rs and u nf riend ly a llia nces. A lr ea dy in parts of L atin Am er ica , A sia , t h e M iddle East , a nd A fr ica , env ironm ental d ecl ine is beco ming a so urce of po lit ica l u nr est a nd int erna tio na l t ensio n. T he recent d est ru ct io n of m uch o f A fr ica ‘s dry la nd a g ricu lt u ra l pr od u ct io n wa s m ore sev ere th an if a n inv ad ing a rm y had pu rsu ed a sco rch ed -ea rth po licy . Yet m ost o f t h e affect ed g o ver nm ents st ill spend f a r m ore to pr otect t h eir peo ple fr o m inv ad ing a rm ies th an fr o m t h e inv ad ing d eser t. 2 3. Gl ob ally , m ilit ary ex pend itures to ta l a b ou t $ 1 tr il lio n a y ea r a nd co ntinu e to g ro w. I n m any co unt ries, m ilit ary spend ing co nsu mes such a h ig h pr opo rtio n of GN P t h at it it sel f d oes grea t dam ag e to t h ese societ ies’ d ev elopm ent ef fo rts. Go ver nm ents tend t o b ase th eir a ppr oach es to ‘secu rit y’ o n tr a d it io na l d ef init ions. T his is most o b vio us in th e attem pts to a ch iev e secu rit y th ro u gh t h e dev elopm ent o f po tent ially p la net -d est ro ying nu clea r wea pons system s. S tu dies su ggest t h at t h e co ld a nd d ark nu clea r wi nter f o llo wing ev en a l im ited nu clea r wa r co uld d est ro y pl ant a nd a nim al eco system s and l ea ve any h um an su rv iv ors occu pying a d ev ast ated pl anet v er y dif fer ent f r o m t h e one th ey inh erited . 24 . T he arm s ra ce – in all pa rts of t h e wo rld – pr e-em pts reso urces th at m ight b e used m ore pr od u ct ively t o d im inish t h e secu rit y t h rea ts cr ea ted b y env ironm ental co nflict a nd t h e resent ment s th at a re fu el led b y wid espr ea d po ver ty . 2 5. M any pr esent ef fo rts to g u ard a nd m aint ain hum an pr ogress, t o m eet h um an need s, a nd t o r ea liz e hum an am bit io ns are sim ply u nsu staina ble – in both t h e rich a nd po or na tio ns. T hey d ra w to o h ea vil y, t o o q u ick ly , o n alr ea dy o ver dra wn env ironm ental r eso urce acco unt s to b e affo rd ab le f a r int o t h e fu tu re wit hou t b ank ru pt ing t h ose acco unt s. T hey m ay sh ow pr ofit o n th e bala nce sh eet s of o u r g ener atio n, b u t o u r ch ildren wil l inh erit t h e lo sses. W e borro w env ironm ental ca pit al f r o m f u tu re gener atio ns wit h no i nt ent ion or pr ospect o f r epa ying . T hey m ay d am n us fo r ou r spend th rif t wa ys, b u t t h ey ca n nev er co llect o n ou r d eb t t o t h em . W e act a s we do b eca use we can get a wa y wit h it : fu tu re gener atio ns do no t v o te; th ey h ave no po lit ica l o r f ina ncia l po wer ; th ey ca nno t ch alleng e ou r d ecisio ns. 26 . B ut t h e resu lt s of t h e pr esent pr oflig acy a re ra pid ly cl osing t h e opt ions fo r f u tu re gener atio ns. M ost o f t o d ay’s decisio n m ak er s wil l b e dea d b ef ore th e pl anet f eel s; th e hea vier ef fect s of a cid pr ecipit atio n, g lo b al wa rm ing , o zo ne depl etio n, o r wid espr ead d eser tif ica tio n and species lo ss. M ost o f t h e yo u ng v o ter s of t o d ay wil l st ill b e aliv e. I n th e Co mmissio n’s hea ring s it wa s th e yo u ng , t h ose wh o h ave th e m ost t o l o se, w ho wer e th e harsh est cr itics of t h e pl anet ‘s pr esent mana gem ent . 3. Sustainable Development 27. H um anit y h as th e ab il it y t o m ak e dev elopm ent su staina ble to ensu re th at it m eet s th e need s of t h e pr esent wit hou t co mpr om ising t h e a b il it y o f f u tu re gener atio ns to m eet t h eir o wn need s. The co ncept o f su staina ble dev elopm ent d oes im ply l im its – no t a b so lu te lim its bu t l im itatio ns im posed b y t h e pr esent st ate of t ech nolo gy a nd so cia l o rg aniz atio n on env ironm ental r eso urces a nd b y t h e ab il it y o f t h e bio sph ere to a b so rb t h e ef fect s of h um an act ivities. B ut t ech nolo gy a nd so cia l o rg aniz atio n ca n be both m ana ged a nd im proved t o m ak e wa y f o r a new era o f eco nomic gro wt h. T he Co mmissio n bel iev es th at wid espr ead po ver ty is no l o ng er inev itab le. P over ty is no t onl y a n ev il in itsel f, b u t su staina ble dev elo pm ent r eq uir es meet ing t h e basic need s of a ll a nd ex tend ing t o a ll t h e oppo rtu nit y t o f u lf il t h eir a spir atio ns fo r a b et ter l if e. A wo rld in wh ich pover ty is end emic wil l a lwa ys be pr one to eco lo gica l a nd o th er ca ta st ro ph es. 28 . M eet ing essent ial need s req uir es not o nl y a new era o f eco nomic gro wt h f o r na tio ns in wh ich th e m ajo rit y a re po or, b u t a n assu ra nce th at t h ose poor g et t h eir f a ir sh are of t h e reso urces req uir ed t o su stain th at g ro wt h. S u ch eq uit y wo uld b e aid ed b y po lit ica l sy stem s th at secu re ef fect ive cit izen participa tio n in decisio n m ak ing a nd b y g rea ter d em ocr acy in int erna tio na l decisio n m ak ing . 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 7/16 29 . S u st aina ble glo b al d ev elopm ent r eq uir es th at t h ose wh o a re m ore afflu ent a d opt l if e- styles wit hin th e pl anet ‘s eco lo gica l m ea ns – in th eir u se of ener gy, f o r ex am ple. F urth er , r a pid ly g ro wing po pu la tio ns can incr ease th e pr essu re on reso urces and sl ow any r ise in liv ing stand ard s; th us su staina ble dev elopm ent ca n onl y b e pu rsu ed if po pu la tio n siz e and g ro wt h a re in harm ony wit h t h e ch ang ing pr od u ct ive po tent ial o f t h e eco system . 30. Yet in th e end , su staina ble dev elopm ent is no t a f ix ed st ate of h arm ony , b u t r a th er a pr ocess of ch ang e in wh ich t h e ex ploit atio n of r eso urces, t h e dir ect ion of inv estment s, t h e orient atio n of tech nolo gica l d ev elopm ent, a nd inst itutio na l ch ang e are m ad e co nsist ent wit h f u tu re as wel l a s pr esent need s. W e do no t pr etend t h at t h e pr ocess is ea sy o r st ra ig htfo rwa rd . P ainf ul ch oices h ave to b e m ad e. T hus, in th e fina l a na ly sis, su staina ble dev elopm ent m ust r est o n po lit ica l wil l. 4. The Institutional Gaps 31. T he ob ject ive of su staina ble dev elopm ent a nd t h e int egra ted na tu re of t h e glo b al env ironm ent/developm ent ch alleng es pose prob lem s fo r inst itutio ns, na tio na l a nd int erna tio na l, t h at wer e est ab lish ed o n th e basis of na rro w pr eo ccu patio ns and co mpa rtm ent aliz ed co ncer ns. Gover nm ents’ g ener al r espo nse to t h e speed a nd sca le of g lo b al ch ang es has been a r el uct ance to r eco gniz e su fficient ly t h e need t o ch ang e t h em selves. T he ch alleng es are both int erdepend ent and int egra ted , r eq uir ing co mpr eh ensiv e appr oach es and po pu la r pa rticipa tio n. 32 . Yet m ost o f t h e inst itutio ns fa cing t h ose challeng es tend t o b e ind epend ent, f r a g m ent ed, wo rk ing t o r el ativ ely na rro w mand ates wit h cl osed d ecisio n pr ocesses. T hose respo nsible fo r m ana ging na tu ra l r eso urces and pr otect ing t h e env ironm ent a re inst itutio na lly sepa ra ted f r o m th ose respo nsible fo r m ana ging t h e eco nom y. T he rea l wo rld o f int erlo ck ed eco nomic and eco lo gica l sy stem s wil l no t ch ang e; th e policies and inst itutio ns concer ned m ust . 33. T her e is a g ro wing need f o r ef fect ive int erna tio na l co oper atio n to m ana ge eco lo gica l a nd eco nomic int erdepend ence. Yet a t t h e sa me tim e, co nfidence in int erna tio na l o rg aniz atio ns is dim inish ing a nd su ppo rt f o r t h em d wind ling . 34. T he oth er g rea t inst itutio na l f la w in coping wit h env ironm ent/developm ent ch alleng es is go ver nm ents’ f a il ure to m ak e th e bod ies whose policy a ct io ns deg ra d e th e env ironm ent respo nsible fo r ensu ring t h at t h eir po licie s pr event t h at d eg ra d atio n. E nv ironm ental co ncer n aro se fr o m d am ag e ca used b y t h e ra pid eco nomic gro wt h f o llo wing t h e Seco nd W orld W ar. Go ver nm ents, pr essu red b y t h eir cit izens, sa w a need t o cl ea n up th e m ess, a nd t h ey est ab lish ed env ironm ental m inist ries and a g encies to d o t h is. M any h ad g rea t su ccess within th e lim its of th eir m and ates – in im proving a ir a nd wa ter q u alit y a nd enh ancing o th er r eso urces. B ut m uch o f th eir wo rk h as of necessit y b een aft er -th e- fa ct r epa ir o f d am ag e: ref orest atio n, r ecl aim ing d eser t la nd s, r eb uil ding u rb an env ironm ents, r est oring na tu ra l h ab it ats, a nd r eh ab il it ating wil d l a nd s. 35. T he ex ist ence of su ch a g encies gave m any g o ver nm ents and t h eir cit izens th e fa lse im pressio n th at t h ese bod ies wer e by t h em selves ab le to pr otect a nd enh ance th e env ironm ental r eso urce b ase. Yet m any ind ust ria liz ed a nd m ost d ev eloping co unt ries carry h uge eco nomic bu rd ens fr o m inh erited pr ob lem s su ch a n air a nd wa ter po llu tio n, d epl etio n of g ro u nd wa ter , a nd t h e pr olif er atio n of t o xic ch em icals and h aza rd ou s wa stes. T hese have been jo ined b y m ore recent pr ob lem s – er osio n, d eser tif ica tio n, a cid if ica tio n, new chem icals, a nd new fo rm s of wa ste – t h at a re dir ect ly r el ated t o a g ricu lt u ra l, ind ust ria l, ener gy, f o rest ry , a nd t r a nspo rta tio n po licies and pr act ices. 36 . T he m and ates of t h e cent ra l eco nomic and sect ora l m inist ries are also o ft en to o na rro w, t o o co ncer ned wit h q u ant ities of pr od u ct io n or g ro wt h. T he m and ates of m inist ries of ind ust ry incl ude pr od u ct io n ta rg et s, wh ile th e acco mpa ny ing po llu tio n is lef t t o m inist ries of env ironm ent. E lect ricit y b oard s pr od u ce power , wh ile th e acid po llu tio n th ey a lso pr od u ce is lef t to o th er b od ies to cl ea n up. T he pr esent ch alleng e is to g iv e th e cent ra l eco nomic and sect ora l m inist ries th e respo nsibilit y f o r t h e qu ali t y o f t h ose parts of t h e hum an env ironm ent a ffect ed b y th eir d ecisio ns, a nd t o g iv e th e env ironm ental a g encies more po wer t o co pe wit h t h e ef fect s of u nsu staina ble dev elopm ent. 37. T he sa me need f o r ch ang e hold s fo r int erna tio na l a g encies concer ned wit h d ev elopm ent lend ing, t r a d e reg ula tio n, a g ricu lt u ra l d ev elopm ent, a nd so o n. T hese have been slow to t a k e th e 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 8/16 environm ental ef fect s of t h eir wo rk int o a cco unt , a lt h ou gh so me are tr y ing t o d o so . 38 . T he ab il it y t o a nt icipa te and pr event env ironm ental d am ag e req uir es th at t h e eco lo gica l dim ensio ns of po licy b e co nsid ered a t t h e sa me tim e as th e eco nomic, t r a d e, ener gy, a g ricu lt u ra l, a nd o th er d im ensio ns. T hey sh ou ld b e co nsid ered o n th e sa me ag end as and in th e sa me na tio na l and int erna tio na l inst itutio ns. 39 . T his reo rient atio n is one of t h e ch ief inst itutio na l ch alleng es of t h e 19 90 s and b ey ond . Meet ing it wil l r eq uir e m ajo r inst itutio na l d ev elopm ent a nd r ef orm . M any co unt ries th at a re to o po or o r sm all o r t h at h ave lim ited m ana ger ial ca pa cit y wil l f ind it d if ficu lt t o d o t h is una ided . They wil l need f ina ncia l a nd t ech nica l a ssist ance and t r a ining . B ut t h e ch ang es req uir ed inv olv e a ll co unt ries, l a rg e and sm all, r ich a nd po or. I I. T he P oli c y D ir e ctio n s 40 . T he Co mmissio n has fo cu sed it s attent ion in th e area s of po pu la tio n, f o od secu rit y, t h e lo ss of species and g enet ic reso urces, ener gy, in du st ry , a nd h um an set tlem ent s – r ea liz ing t h at a ll o f th ese are co nnect ed a nd ca nno t b e tr ea te d in iso la tio n one fr o m a no th er . T his sect ion co ntains o nl y a f ew of t h e Co mmissio n’s m any r ec om mend atio ns. 1. Population and Human Resources 41. I n m any pa rts of t h e wo rld , t h e po pu la tio n is gro wing a t r a tes th at ca nno t b e su stained b y ava il ab le env ironm ental r eso urces, a t r a tes th at a re ou tst ripping a ny r ea sona ble ex pect atio ns of im provem ent s in hou sing , h ea lt h ca re, f o od secu rit y, o r ener gy su ppl ies. 42. T he issu e is no t j u st nu mber s of peo ple, b u t h ow th ose nu mber s rel ate to a va il ab le reso urces. T hus th e ‘po pu la tio n pr ob lem ‘ m ust b e dea lt wit h in part b y ef fo rts to el im ina te m ass po ver ty , in o rd er t o a ssu re m ore eq uit ab le access to r eso urces, a nd b y ed uca tio n to im prove hum an po tent ial to m ana ge th ose reso urces. 4 3. U rg ent st eps are need ed t o l im it ex tr em e ra tes of po pu la tio n gro wt h. Ch oices mad e no w wil l influ ence th e lev el a t wh ich t h e po pu la tio n stab il iz es nex t cent ury wit hin a r a ng e of 6 b il lio n peo ple. B ut t h is is no t j u st a d em ogra ph ic issu e; provid ing peo ple wit h f a cil ities and ed uca tio n th at a llo w th em t o ch oose th e siz e of t h eir f a m ilies is a wa y o f a ssu ring – especia lly f o r wo men – th e basic hum an rig ht o f sel f- d et er mina tio n. 44. Go ver nm ents th at need t o d o so sh ou ld d ev elop lo ng -ter m, m ult if acet ed po pu la tio n po licies a nd a ca mpa ign to pu rsu e bro ad d em ogra ph ic go als: to st reng th en socia l, cu lt u ra l, a nd eco nomic motiv atio ns fo r f a m ily pl anning , a nd t o pr ovid e to a ll wh o wa nt t h em t h e ed uca tio n, co ntra cept ives, a nd ser vices req uir ed . 45. H um an reso urce dev elopm ent is a cr ucia l r eq uir em ent no t o nl y t o b u il d u p tech nica l kno wled ge and ca pa bil it ies, b u t a lso t o cr ea te new va lu es to h el p ind ivid uals and na tio ns cope wit h r a pid ly ch ang ing so cia l, env ironm enta l, a nd d ev elopm ent r ea lit ies. K no wled ge sh ared g lo b ally wo uld a ssu re grea ter m utu al u nd erstand ing a nd cr ea te grea ter wil ling nes s to sh are g lo b al r eso urces equit ab ly . 4 6 . T rib al a nd ind igeno us peo ples wil l need specia l a ttent ion as th e fo rces of eco nomic dev elopm ent d isr upt t h eir t r a d it io na l l if e-st yles – l if e- styles th at ca n offer m od er n so ciet ies many lesso ns in th e m ana gem ent o f r eso urces in complex f o rest , m ou nt ain, a nd d ry la nd eco system s. Som e are th rea tened wit h v ir tu al ex tinct ion by insensit ive dev elopm ent o ver wh ich t h ey h ave no co ntro l. T heir t r a d it io na l r ig hts sh ou ld b e reco gniz ed a nd t h ey sh ou ld b e giv en a d ecisiv e vo ice in fo rm ula ting po licies ab ou t r eso urce dev elopm ent in th eir a rea s. ( S ee Ch ap te r 4 f o r a wid er discu ssion of t h ese issu es and r eco mmend atio ns. ) 2. Food Security: Sustaining the Potential 47. Gr owt h in wo rld cer eal pr od u ct io n has st ea dil y o u tst ripped wo rld po pu la tio n gro wt h. Yet ea ch y ea r t h er e are m ore peo ple in th e w orld wh o d o no t g et eno ugh f o od . Gl ob al a g ricu lt u re has th e po tent ial t o g ro w eno ugh f o od f o r a ll, b u t f o od is oft en not a va il ab le wh ere it is need ed. 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 9/16 48 . P ro d u ct io n in ind ust ria liz ed co unt ries has usu ally b een hig hly su bsid ized a nd pr otect ed f r o m int erna tio na l co mpet itio n. T hese subsid ies have enco ura g ed t h e over use of so il a nd ch em icals, t h e po llu tio n of b oth wa ter r eso urces and f o od s wit h t h ese chem icals, a nd t h e deg ra d atio n of t h e co unt ry sid e. M uch o f t h is effo rt h as pr od u ced su rpl uses and t h eir a sso ciated f ina ncia l b u rd ens. A nd so me of t h is su rpl us has been sent a t co ncessio nal r a tes to t h e dev eloping wo rld , wh ere it has und ermined t h e fa rm ing po licies of r ecipient na tio ns. T her e is, h owev er, g ro wing a wa reness in some co unt ries of t h e env ironm ental a nd eco nomic co nseq uences of su ch pa th s, a nd t h e em phasis of a g ricu lt u ra l po licies is to enco ura g e co nser va tio n. 49 . M any d ev eloping co unt ries, o n th e oth er h and , h ave su ffer ed t h e oppo site pr ob lem : fa rm er s are no t su fficient ly su ppo rted . I n so me, im proved t ech nolo gy a llied t o pr ice incent ives and g o ver nm ent ser vices has pr od u ced a m ajo r b rea kth ro u gh in fo od pr od u ct io n. B ut el sewh ere, t h e fo od -g ro wing sm all f a rm er s have been neglect ed. Co ping wit h o ft en ina deq uate tech nolo gy a nd few eco nomic incent ives, m any a re pu shed o nt o m arg ina l l a nd : to o d ry , t o o st eep, l a ck ing in nu tr ient s. F orest s are cl ea red a nd pr od u ct ive dry la nd s rend ered b arren. 5 0 . M ost d ev eloping na tio ns need m ore ef fect ive incent ive sy stem s to enco ura g e pr od u ct io n, especia lly o f f o od cr ops. I n sh ort, t h e ‘t er ms of t r a d e’ need t o b e tu rned in fa vo u r o f t h e sm all f a rm er . M ost ind ust ria liz ed na tio ns, o n th e oth er h and , m ust a lt er pr esent sy stem s in ord er t o cu t su rpl uses, t o r ed uce unf air co mpet itio n wit h na tio ns th at m ay h ave rea l co mpa ra tiv e ad va nt ag es, a nd t o pr om ote eco lo gica lly so und f a rm ing pr act ices. 51. F ood secu rit y r eq uir es attent ion to q u est ions of d ist rib utio n, since hung er o ft en arises fr o m la ck o f pu rch asing po wer r a th er t h an la ck o f a va il ab le fo od . I t ca n be fu rth er ed b y l a nd r ef orm s, and b y po licies to pr otect v u lner ab le su bsist ence fa rm er s, pa stora 1ist s, a nd t h e la nd less – g ro u ps wh o b y t h e yea r 2 0 00 wil l incl ude 220 m illio n hou seh old s. T heir g rea ter pr osper ity wil l d epend on int egra ted r u ra l d ev elopm ent t h at inc rea ses work o ppo rtu nit ies both insid e and o u tsid e ag ricu lt u re. ( S ee Ch ap te r 5 f o r a wid er d iscu ssion of t h ese issu es and r eco mmend atio ns. ) 3. Species and Ecosystems: Resources for Development 52 . T he pl anet ‘s species are und er st ress. T her e is a g ro wing scient ific co nsensu s th at species are d isa ppea ring a t r a tes nev er b ef ore wit nes sed o n th e pl anet , a lt h ou gh t h er e is also co ntro ver sy over t h ose ra tes and t h e risk s th ey ent ail . Yet t h er e is still t im e to h alt t h is pr ocess. 53. T he div er sit y o f species is necessa ry f o r t h e no rm al f u nct ioning o f eco system s and t h e bio sph ere as a wh ole. T he genet ic mater ial in wil d species contrib utes bil lio ns of d olla rs yea rly t o t h e wo rld eco nomy in th e fo rm o f im proved cr op species, new dru gs and m ed icines, a nd r a w m ater ials fo r ind ust ry . B ut u til it y a sid e, t h er e are also m ora l, et hica l, cu lt u ra l, a est het ic, a nd pu rel y scient ific rea sons fo r co nser ving w ild b eing s. 54 . A f ir st pr iorit y is to est ab lish t h e pr ob lem o f d isa ppea ring species and t h rea tened eco system s on po lit ica l a g end as as a m ajo r eco nomic a nd r eso urce issu e. 55. Go ver nm ents ca n stem t h e dest ru ct io n of t r o pica l f o rest s and o th er r eser vo ir s of b io lo gica l div er sit y wh ile dev eloping t h em eco nomica lly . R ef orm ing f o rest r ev enu e sy stem s and co ncessio n ter ms co uld r a ise bil lio ns of d olla rs of a d dit io na l r ev enu es, pr om ote m ore ef ficient , l o ng -ter m fo rest r eso urce use, a nd cu rta il d ef orest atio n. 56 . T he net work o f pr otect ed a rea s th at t h e wo rld wil l need in th e fu tu re m ust incl ude m uch la rg er a rea s bro u gh t u nd er so .ne deg ree of pr otect ion. T her efore, t h e co st o f co nser va tio n wil l rise – d ir ect ly a nd in ter ms of o ppo rtu nit ies fo r d ev elopm ent f o reg one. B ut o ver t h e lo ng t er m t h e oppo rtu nit ies fo r d ev elopm ent wil l b e en hanced . I nt erna tio na l d ev elopm ent a g en cies shou ld t h er efore giv e co mpr eh ensiv e and sy stem atic attent ion to t h e pr ob lem s and o ppo rtu nit ies of species conser va tio n. 57. Go ver nm ents sh ou ld inv estigate th e pro spect o f a g reeing t o a ‘S pecies Convent ion’, sim ilar in spir it a nd sco pe to o th er int erna tio na l co nv ent ions ref lect ing pr incipl es of ‘u niv ersa l r eso urces’ . They sh ou ld a lso co nsid er int erna tio na l f ina ncia l a rra ng em ent s to su ppo rt t h e im plem ent atio n of su ch a co nv ent ion. ( S ee Ch ap te r 6 f o r a wid er d iscu ssion of t h ese issu es and r eco mmend atio ns. ) 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 10/16 4. Energy: Choices for Environment and Development 58 . A sa fe and su staina ble ener gy pa th wa y is crucia l t o su staina ble dev elopm ent; we have no t y et fo u nd it . R ates of incr ease in ener gy u se have been decl ining . H owev er, t h e ind ustr ia liz atio n, ag ricu lt u ra l d ev elopm ent, a nd r a pid ly g ro wing po pu la tio ns of d ev eloping na tio ns wil l need m uch m ore ener gy. T od ay, t h e aver ag e per son in an ind ust ria l m ark et eco nomy u ses more th an 80 tim es as m uch ener gy a s so meo ne in sub-S ah ara n Afr ica . T hus any r ea list ic glo b al ener gy scena rio m ust pr ovid e fo r su bst ant ially incr eased pr im ary ener gy u se by d ev eloping co unt ries. 5 9 . T o b ring d ev eloping co unt ries’ ener gy u se up to ind ust ria liz ed co unt ry l ev els by t h e yea r 2 0 25 wo uld r eq uir e incr easing pr esent g lo b al e ner gy u se by a f a ct or o f f iv e. T he pl anet ary eco system co uld no t st and t h is, especia lly if t h e incr eases wer e based o n no n-renewa ble fo ssil f u el s. T hrea ts o f g lo b al wa rm ing a nd a cid ifica tio n of t h e env ironm ent m ost pr ob ab ly r u le ou t ev en a d ou bling o f ener gy u se bared o n pr esent m ixes of p rim ary so urces. 6 0 . A ny new era o f eco nomic gro wt h m ust t h er efore be less ener gy int ensiv e th an gro wt h in th e pa st. E ner gy ef ficiency po licies must b e th e cu tting ed ge of na tio na l ener gy st ra teg ies fo r su staina ble dev elopm ent, a nd t h er e is much sco pe fo r im provem ent in th is dir ect ion. M od er n appl iances can be red esig ned t o d el iv er t h e sa me am ou nt s of ener gy-ser vices with o nl y t wo – th ir ds or ev en one- half o f t h e pr im ary en ergy inpu ts need ed t o r u n tr a d it io na l eq uipm ent. A nd ener gy ef ficiency so lu tio ns are oft en cost-ef fect ive. 61. A ft er a lm ost f o u r d eca des of im mense t ech nolo gica l ef fo rt, nu clea r ener gy h as beco me wid ely used . D uring t h is per iod, h owev er, t h e na tu re of it s co sts, r isk s, a nd b enef its have beco me m ore ev ident a nd t h e su bject o f sh arp co ntro ver sy . D iffer ent co unt ries world -wid e ta k e up dif fer ent po sitions on th e use of nu clea r ener gy. T he discu ssion in th e Co mmissio n also r ef lect ed t h ese dif fer ent v iews and po sitions. Yet a ll a g reed t h at t h e gener atio n of nu clea r po wer is onl y ju st ifia ble if t h er e are so lid so lu tio ns to t h e unso lv ed pr ob lem s to wh ich it g iv es rise. T he hig hest pr iorit y sh ou ld b e acco rd ed t o r esea rch a nd d ev elopm ent o n env ironm entally so und a nd eco lo gica lly v ia ble alt er na tiv es, a s wel l a s on m ea ns of incr easing t h e sa fet y o f nu clea r ener gy. 6 2. E ner gy ef ficiency ca n onl y b u y t im e fo r t h e wo rld t o d ev elop ‘l o w- ener gy pa th s’ b ased o n renewa ble so urces, wh ich sh ou ld f o rm t h e fo u nd atio n of t h e glo b al ener gy st ru ct ure du ring t h e 21st Cent ury . M ost o f t h ese sources are cu rrent ly pr ob lem atic, b u t g iv en inno va tiv e dev elopm ent, th ey co uld su ppl y t h e sa me am ou nt o f pr im ary ener gy t h e pl anet no w co nsu mes. H owev er, ach iev ing t h ese use lev els wil l r eq uir e a pr ogra m me of co ord ina ted r esea rch , d ev elopm ent, a nd d em onst ra tio n pr oject s co mmand ing f u n ding necessa ry t o ensu re th e ra pid d ev elopm ent o f renewa ble ener gy. D ev eloping co unt ries will r eq uir e assist ance to ch ang e th eir ener gy u se pa tter ns in th is dir ect ion. 63. M illio ns of peo ple in th e dev eloping w orld a re sh ort o f f u el wo od , t h e m ain dom est ic ener gy o f h alf o f h um anit y, a nd t h eir nu mber s are gro wing . T he wo od -po or na tio ns must o rg aniz e th eir ag ricu lt u ra l sect ors to pr od u ce la rg e am ou nt s of wo od a nd o th er pl ant f u el s. 64. T he su bst ant ial ch ang es req uir ed in th e pr esent g lo b al ener gy m ix wil l no t b e ach iev ed b y m ark et pr essu res alo ne, g iv en th e dom ina nt r o le of g o ver nm ents as pr od u cer s of ener gy a nd th eir im porta nce as co nsu mer s. I f t h e recent m om ent um b eh ind a nnu al g ains in ener gy ef ficiency is to b e m aint ained a nd ex tend ed,g o ver nm ents need t o m ak e it a n ex plicit g o al o f t h eir po licies fo r ener gy pr icing t o co nsu mer s, pr ices need ed t o enco ura g e th e ad opt ion of ener gy- sa ving m ea su res may b e ach iev ed t h ro u gh sev eral m ea ns. A lt h ou gh t h e Co mmissio n ex presses no pr efer ence, ‘co nser va tio n pr icing ‘ r eq uir es th at g o ver nm ents ta k e a l o ng -ter m v iew in weig hing t h e co sts and b enef its of t h e va rio us m ea su res. Giv en th e im porta nce of o il pr ices on int erna tio na l ener gy po licy , new mech anism s fo r enco ura g ing d ia lo gu e bet ween consu mer s and pr od u cer s sh ou ld b e ex plored . 65. A sa fe, env ironm entally so und , a nd e co no mica lly v ia ble ener gy pa th wa y t h at wil l su stain h um an pr ogress into t h e dist ant f u tu re is cl ea rly im per ativ e. I t is also po ssib le. B ut it wil l r eq uir e new dim ensio ns of po lit ica l wil l a nd inst itutio na l co oper atio n to a ch iev e it. ( S ee Ch ap te r 7 f o r a wid er d iscu ssion of t h ese issu es and r eco mmend atio ns. ) 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 11/16 5. Industry: Producing More with Less 6 6. T he wo rld m anu fa ct ures sev en tim es more go o d s to d ay t h an it d id a s recent ly a s 19 50 . Giv en popu la tio n gro wt h r a tes, a f iv e- t o t enf old incr ease in manu fa ct uring o u tpu t wil l b e need ed j u st to r a ise dev eloping wo rld co nsu mpt ion of m anu fa ct ured g o o d s to ind ust ria liz ed wo rld l ev els by th e tim e po pu la tio n gro wt h r a tes lev el o ff nex t cent ury . 6 7. E xper ience in th e ind ust ria liz ed na tio ns has pr oved t h at a nt i-po llu tio n tech nolo gy h as been co st-ef fect ive in ter ms of h ea lt h , pr oper ty , a nd env ironm ental d am ag e avo id ed , a nd t h at it h as m ad e m any ind ust ries more pr ofit ab le by wa king t h em m ore reso urce- efficient . W hile eco nomic gro wt h h as co ntinu ed, t h e co nsu mpt ion of r a w mater ials has hel d st ea dy o r ev en decl ined , a nd new tech nolo gies offer f u rth er ef ficiencies. 6 8 . N atio ns have to b ea r t h e co sts of a ny ina ppr opr iate ind ust ria liz atio n, a nd m any d ev eloping co unt ries are rea liz ing t h at t h ey h ave nei th er t h e reso urces nor – g iv en ra pid t ech nolo gica l chang e – t h e tim e to d am ag e th eir env ironm ents no w and cl ea n up la ter . B ut t h ey a lso need a ssist ance and inf orm atio n fr o m ind ust ria liz ed na tio ns to m ak e th e best u se of t ech nolo gy. T ra nsna tio na l co rpo ra tio ns have a specia l r espo nsibilit y t o sm ooth t h e pa th o f ind ust ria liz atio n in th e na tio ns in wh ich t h ey o per ate. 6 9. E m er ging t ech nolo gies offer t h e pr om ise of h ig her pr od u ct ivity, incr eased ef ficiency , a nd d ecr eased po llu tio n, b u t m any b ring r isk s of new to xic ch em icals and wa stes and o f m ajo r accid ents of a t y pe and sca le bey ond pr esent co ping m ech anism s. T her e is an urg ent need f o r tig hter co ntro ls over t h e ex po rt o f h aza rd ou s ind ust ria l a nd a g ricu lt u ra l ch em icals. P resent co ntro ls over t h e du m ping o f h aza rd ou s wa stes shou ld b e tig htened . 70 . M any essent ial h um an need s ca n be net o nl y t h ro u gh g o o d s and ser vices provid ed b y ind ust ry , a nd t h e sh ift t o su staina ble dev elopm ent m ust b e po wer ed b y a co ntinu ing f lo w of wea lt h f r o m ind ust ry . ( S ee Ch ap te r 8 f o r a wid er d iscu ssion of t h ese issu es and reco mmend atio ns. ) 6. The Urban Challenge 71. B y t h e tu rn of t h e cent ury , a lm ost h alf o f h um anit y wil l l iv e in cities; th e wo rld o f t h e 21st cent ury wil l b e a l a rg el y u rb an wo rld . O ver o nl y 6 5 y ea rs, t h e dev eloping wo rld ‘s urb an po pu la tio n has incr eased t enf old , f r o m a ro u nd 10 0 m illio n in 1920 t o 1 bil lio n to d ay. I n 19 40 , one per son in 100 l iv ed in a cit y o f 1 m illio n or m ore inh ab it ant s; by 19 80 , o ne in 10 l iv ed in such a cit y. B et ween 1985 a nd t h e yea r 2 0 00, T hir d W orld cit ies could g ro w by a no th er t h ree- qu arter s of a b il lio n peo ple. T his su ggest s th at t h e dev eloping wo rld m ust , o ver t h e nex t f ew yea rs, incr ease by 6 5 per cent it s ca pa cit y t o pr od u ce and m ana ge its urb an inf ra st ru ct ure, ser vices, a nd sh elter m er ely t o m aint ain to d ay’s oft en extr em ely ina deq uate co nd itio ns. 72 . F ew city g o ver nm ents in th e dev eloping wo rld h ave th e po wer , r eso urces, a nd t r a ined per sonnel t o pr ovid e th eir r a pid ly g ro win g po pu la tio ns wit h t h e la nd , ser vices, a nd f a cil ities need ed f o r a n ad eq uate hum an lif e: clea n wa ter , sa nit atio n, sch ools, a nd t r a nspo rt. T he resu lt is m ush ro om ing il leg al set tlem ent s wit h pr im itiv e fa cil ities, incr eased o ver crowd ing , a nd r a m pa nt disea se link ed t o a n unh ealt h y env ironm ent. M any cit ies in ind ust ria l co unt ries also f a ce pr ob lem s – d et er iora ting inf ra st ru ct ure, e nv ironm ental d eg ra d atio n, inner -cit y d eca y, a nd neig hbou rh ood co lla pse. B ut wit h t h e m ea ns and r eso urces to t a ck le th is decl ine, t h e issu e fo r m ost ind ust ria l co unt ries is ult im atel y o n e of po lit ica l a nd so cia l ch oice. D ev eloping co unt ries are no t in th e sa me sit uatio n. T hey h ave a m ajo r u rb an cr isis on th eir h and s. 73. Go ver nm ents wil l need t o d ev elop ex plicit set tlem ent s st ra teg ies to g u id e th e pr ocess of u rb aniz atio n, t a k ing t h e pr essu re off t h e la rg est u rb an cent res and b u il ding u p sm aller t o wns and cit ies, m ore cl osel y int egra ting t h em wit h t h eir r u ra l h int erla nd s. T his wil l m ea n ex am ining a nd ch ang ing o th er po licies – t a x atio n, f o od pr icing , t r a nspo rta tio n, h ea lt h , ind ust ria liz atio n – t h at wo rk a g ainst t h e go als of set tlem ent s st ra teg ies. 74 . Go od cit y m ana gem ent r eq uir es decent ra liz atio n of f u nd s, po lit ica l po wer , a nd per sonnel – t o lo ca l a u th orit ies, wh ich a re best pl aced t o a ppr ecia te and m ana ge lo ca l need s. B ut t h e su staina ble 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 12/16 dev elopm ent o f cit ies will d epend o n closer wo rk wit h t h e m ajo rit ies of u rb an po or wh o a re th e tr u e cit y b u il der s, t a pping t h e sk ills, ener gies and r eso urces of neig hbou rh ood g ro u ps and t h ose in th e ‘inf orm al sect or’. M uch ca n be ach iev ed b y ‘sit e and ser vice’ sch emes th at pr ovid e hou seh old s wit h b asic services and h el p th em t o g et o n wit h b u il ding so und er h ou ses aro u nd th ese. ( S ee Ch ap te r 9 f o r a wid er d iscu ssion of t h ese issu es and r eco mmend atio ns. ) III. I n te rn atio n al C oop era tio n a n d I n st it u tio n al R efo rm 1. The Role of the International Economy 75 . T wo co nd itio ns must b e sa tisf ied b ef ore int erna tio na l eco nomic exch ang es can beco me benef icial f o r a ll inv olv ed . T he su staina bil it y o f eco system s on wh ich t h e glo b al eco nomy d epend s must b e gu ara nt eed . A nd t h e eco nomic pa rtner s m ust b e sa tisf ied t h at t h e basis of ex ch ang e is eq uit ab le. F or m any d ev eloping co unt ries, neit her co nd itio n is set . 76 . Gr owt h in many d ev eloping co unt ries is being st ifled b y d epr essed co mmod it y pr ices, protect ionism , int oler ab le deb t b u rd ens, a nd d ecl ining f lo ws of d ev elopm ent f ina nce. I f l iv ing stand ard s are to g ro w so a s to a llev iate po ver ty , t h ese tr end s m ust b e rev ersed . 77. A pa rticu la r r espo nsibilit y f a lls to t h e W orld B ank a nd t h e Int erna tio na l D ev elopm ent Asso ciatio n as th e m ain cond uit f o r m ult il ater al f ina nce to d ev eloping co unt ries. I n th e co ntex t o f co nsist ently incr eased f ina ncia l f lo ws, t h e W orld B ank ca n su ppo rt env ironm entally so und pr oject s and po licies. I n fina ncing st ru ct ura l a d ju st m ent , t h e Int erna tio na l M onet ary F und sh ou ld su ppo rt wid er a nd l o ng er t er m d ev elopm ent o b ject ives th an at pr esent : gro wt h, so cia l go als, a nd env ironm ental im pacts. 78 . T he pr esent l ev el o f d eb t ser vice of m any co unt ries, especia lly in Afr ica a nd L atin Am er ica , is no t co nsist ent wit h su staina ble dev elopm ent. D eb to rs are being r eq uir ed t o u se tr a d e su rpl uses to ser vice deb ts, a nd a re dra wing h ea vil y o n no n-renewa ble reso urces to d o so . U rg ent a ct io n is necessa ry t o a llev iate deb t b u rd ens in wa ys th at r epr esent a f a ir er sh aring b et ween both d eb to rs a nd l end ers of t h e respo nsibilit ies and b u rd ens. 79 . Cu rrent a rra ng em ent s fo r co mmod it ies could b e sig nifica ntly im proved : m ore co mpensa to ry fina ncing t o o ffset eco nomic sh ock s wo uld enco ura g e pr od u cer s to t a k e a l o ng -ter m v iew, a nd no t t o o ver pr od u ce commod it ies; and m ore assist ance could b e giv en fr o m d iv er sif ica tio n pr ogra m mes. Co mmod it y-specif ic arra ng em ent s ca n bu il d o n th e m od el o f t h e In ter na tio na l Tro pica l T im ber A greem ent, o ne of t h e fe w th at specif ically incl udes eco lo gica l co ncer ns 80 . M ult ina tio na l co mpa nies can pl ay a n im porta nt r o le in sustaina ble dev elopm ent, especia lly a s dev eloping co unt ries come to r el y m ore on fo reig n eq uit y ca pit al. B ut if t h ese compa nies are to h ave a po sitive inf lu ence on dev elopm ent, t h e neg otia ting ca pa cit y o f d ev eloping co unt ries vis a vis tr a nsna tio na ls m ust b e st reng th ened so t h ey ca n secu re ter ms wh ich r espect t h eir env ironm ental co ncer ns. 81. H owev er, t h ese specif ic mea su res must b e lo ca ted in a wid er co ntex t o f ef fect ive co oper atio n to pr od u ce an int erna tio na l eco nomic system g ea red t o g ro wt h a nd t h e el im ina tio n of wo rld po ver ty . ( S ee Ch ap te r 3 f o r a m ore det ail ed d iscu ssion of issu es and r eco mmend atio ns on th e int erna tio na l eco nomy.) 2. Managing the Commons 8 2. T ra d it io na l f o rm s of na tio na l so ver eig nty r a ise particu la r pr ob lem s in mana ging t h e ‘g lo b al co mmons’ a nd t h eir sh ared eco system s – t h e ocea ns, o u ter spa ce, a nd A nt arct ica . S om e pr ogress h as been mad e in all t h ree area s; much r em ains to b e done. 8 3. T he U N Co nference on th e Law of t h e S ea wa s th e m ost a m bit io us attem pt ev er t o pr ovid e an int erna tio na lly a g reed r eg im e fo r t h e m ana gem ent o f t h e ocea ns. A ll na tio ns shou ld r a tif y t h e L aw of t h e Sea T rea ty a s so on at po ssib le . F ish eries ag reem ents sh ou ld b e st reng th ened t o pr event cu rrent o ver ex ploit atio n, a s sh ou ld co nv ent ions to co ntro l a nd r eg ula te th e du m ping o f h aza rd ou s wa stes at sea . 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 13/16 84. T her e are gro wing co ncer ns ab ou t t h e m ana gem ent o f o rb it al spa ce, cent ering o n using sa tel lit e tech nolo gy f o r m onit oring pl ane ta ry sy stem s; on m ak ing t h e m ost ef fect ive use of t h e lim ited ca pa cit ies of g eo synch ro no us orb it f o r co mmunica tio ns satel lit es; and o n lim iting spa ce deb ris. T he orb it ing a nd t est ing o f wea pons in spa ce wo uld g rea tly incr ease th is deb ris. T he int erna tio na l co mmunit y sh ou ld seek t o d esig n and im plem ent a spa ce reg im e to ensu re th at spa ce rem ains a pea ceful env ironm ent f o r t h e benef it o f a ll. 8 5. A nt arct ica is mana ged u nd er t h e 19 59 A nt arct ica T rea ty . H owev er, m any na tio ns ou tsid e of th at pa ct v iew th e Trea ty S yst em a s to o l im ited , b oth in participa tio n and in th e sco pe of it s co nser va tio n m ea su res. T he Co mmissio n’s reco mmend atio ns dea l wit h t h e sa feg uard ing o f pr esent a ch iev em ent s; th e inco rpo ra tio n o f a ny m iner als dev elopm ent int o a m ana gem ent reg im e; and v a rio us opt ions fo r t h e fu tu re. ( S ee Ch ap te r 10 f o r m ore discu ssion in issu es and reco mmend atio ns on th e m ana gem ent o f t h e co mmons. ) 3. Peace, Security, Development, and the Environment 86. A m ong t h e dang ers fa cing t h e env ironm ent, t h e po ssib ilit y o f nu clea r wa r is und ou bted ly t h e gra vest . Cer ta in aspect s of t h e issu es of p ea ce and secu rit y b ea r d ir ect ly u po n th e co ncept o f su staina ble dev elopm ent. T he wh ole no tio n of secu rit y a s tr a d it io na lly u nd erstood in ter ms of po lit ica l a nd m ilit ary t h rea ts to na tio na l so ver eig nty – m ust b e ex pa nd ed t o incl ude th e gro wing im pacts of env ironm ental st ress – l o ca lly , na tio na lly , r eg iona lly , a nd g lo b ally . T her e are no m ilit ary so lu tio ns to ‘env ironm ental inse curit y’. 8 7. Go ver nm ents and int erna tio na l a g en cies shou ld a ssess th e co st-ef fect iveness, in ter ms of ach iev ing secu rit y, o f m oney spent o n arm am ent s co mpa red wit h m oney spent o n red ucing po ver ty o r r est oring a r a va g ed env ironm ent. 88. B ut t h e grea test need is to a ch iev e im proved r el atio ns am ong t h ose majo r po wer s ca pa ble of d epl oying wea pons of m ass dest ru ct io n. T his is need ed t o a ch iev e ag reem ent o n tig hter co ntro l over t h e pr olif er atio n and t est ing o f v a rio us ty pes of wea pons of m ass dest ru ct io n – nu clea r a nd no n nu clea r – incl uding t h ose th at h ave env ironm ental im plica tio ns. ( S ee Ch ap te r 11 f o r m ore d iscu ssion of issu es and r eco mmend atio ns on th e link s bet ween peace, secu rit y, d ev elopm ent, and t h e env ironm ent.) 4. Institutional and Legal Change 8 9. T he Repo rt t h at f o llo ws contains th ro u gh ou t ( a nd especia lly in Ch ap te r 12 ), m any specif ic reco mmend atio ns fo r inst itutio na l a nd l e g al ch ang e. T hese canno t b e ad eq uatel y su mmariz ed her e. H owev er, t h e Co mmissio n’s m ain pro po sals are em bod ied in six pr iorit y a rea s. 4.1 G ettin g a t t h e S ou rc e s 90 . Go ver nm ents m ust b eg in no w to m ak e th e key na tio na l, eco nomic, a nd sect ora l a g encies d ir ect ly r espo nsible and a cco unt ab le fo r ensu ring t h at t h eir po licies, pr ogra m mes, a nd b u dget s su ppo rt d ev elopm ent t h at is eco nomica ll y a nd eco lo gica lly su staina ble. 9 1. B y t h e sa me to ken, t h e va rio us reg iona l o rg aniz atio ns need t o d o m ore to int egra te env ironm ent f u lly in th eir g o als and a ct ivities. N ew reg iona l a rra ng em ent s wil l especia lly b e need ed a m ong d ev eloping co unt ries to d ea l wit h t r a nsb ou nd ary env ironm ental issu es. 92. A ll m ajo r int erna tio na l b od ies and a g encies shou ld ensu re th at t h eir pr ogra m mes enco ura g e and su ppo rt su staina ble dev elopm ent, a nd t h ey sh ou ld g rea tly im prove th eir co ord ina tio n and co oper atio n. T he Secr etary -Gener al o f t h e U nit ed N atio ns Org aniz atio n sh ou ld pr ovid e a h ig h lev el cent re of l ea der sh ip fo r t h e U N sy stem t o a ssess, a d vise, a ssist , a nd r epo rt o n pr ogress mad e to wa rd s th is go al. 4 .2 D ea li n g w it h t h e E ffe cts 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 14/16 93. Go ver nm ents sh ou ld a lso r einf orce th e ro les and ca pa cit ies of env ironm ental pr otect ion and reso urce mana gem ent a g encies. T his is need ed in many ind ust ria liz ed co unt ries, b u t m ost u rg ent ly in dev eloping co unt ries, wh ich w ill need a ssist ance in streng th ening t h eir inst itutio ns. The U N E nv ironm ent P ro gra m me (U N EP) sh ou ld b e st reng th ened a s th e pr incipa l so urce on env ironm ental d ata , a ssessm ent, a nd r epo rting a nd a s th e pr incipa l a d vo ca te and a g ent f o r ch ang e and int erna tio na l co oper atio n on cr itica l env ironm ent a nd na tu ra l r eso urce protect ion issu es. 4.3 A sse ssing G lo b al R isk s 94. T he ca pa cit y t o id ent ify, a ssess, a nd r epo rt o n risk s of ir rev ersib le dam ag e to na tu ra l sy stem s and t h rea ts to t h e su rv iv al, secu rit y, a nd wel l b eing o f t h e wo rld co mmunit y m ust b e ra pid ly r einf orced a nd ex tend ed. Go ver nm ents, i nd ivid ually a nd co llect ively, h ave th e pr incipa l respo nsibilit y t o d o t h is. U N EP’s Earth w atch pr ogra m me sh ou ld b e th e cent re of l ea der sh ip in th e U N sy stem o n risk a ssessm ent 95. H owev er, g iv en th e po lit ica lly sensit ive na tu re of m any o f t h e m ost cr itica l r isk s, t h er e is also a need f o r a n ind epend ent b u t co mplem ent ary ca pa cit y t o a ssess and r epo rt o n cr itica l g lo b al risk s. A new interna tio na l pr ogra m me fo r co oper atio n am ong l a rg el y no n-go ver nm ental o rg aniz atio ns, scient ific bod ies, a nd ind ust ry g ro u ps shou ld t h er efore be est ab lish ed f o r t h is pu rpo se. 4.4 M ak in g I n fo rm ed C hoic e s 96. M ak ing t h e dif ficu lt ch oices involv ed in ach iev ing su staina ble dev elopm ent wil l d epend o n th e wid espr ead su ppo rt a nd inv olv em ent o f a n inf orm ed pu blic and o f N GO s, t h e scient ific co mmunit y, a nd ind ust ry . T heir r ig hts, r o les and pa rticipa tio n in dev elopm ent pl anning , decisio n-mak ing , a nd pr oject im plem ent atio n sh ou ld b e ex pa nd ed. 4.5 P ro vid in g t h e L eg a l M ea n s 97. N atio na l a nd int erna tio na l l a w is being r a pid ly o u td ist anced b y t h e accel erating pa ce and ex pa nd ing sca le of im pacts on th e eco lo gica l b asis of d ev elopm ent. Go ver nm ents no w need t o f il l m ajo r g aps in exist ing na tio na l a nd int erna tio na l l a w rel ated t o t h e env ironm ent, t o f ind wa ys to r eco gniz e and pr otect t h e rig hts of pr esen t a nd f u tu re gener atio ns to a n env ironm ent a d eq uate fo r t h eir h ea lt h a nd wel l- b eing , t o pr epa re und er U N a u spices a u niv ersa l D ecl ara tio n on env ironm ental pr otect ion and su staina ble dev elopm ent a nd a su bseq uent Co nvent ion, a nd t o st reng th en proced ures fo r a vo id ing o r r eso lv ing d ispu tes on env ironm ent a nd r eso urce m ana gem ent issu es. 4.6 I n ve st in g i n o u r Fu tu re 9 8 . O ver t h e pa st d eca de, t h e over all co st-ef fect iveness of inv estment s in halt ing po llu tio n has b een dem onst ra ted . T he esca la ting eco nomic and eco lo gica l d am ag e co sts of no t inv esting in env ironm ental pr otect ion and im provem ent h ave also b een repea ted ly d em onst ra ted – o ft en in grim t o lls of f lo od a nd f a m ine. B ut t h er e are la rg e fina ncia l im plica tio ns: fo r r enewa ble ener gy d ev elopm ent, po llu tio n co ntro l, a nd a ch iev ing l ess reso urce int ensiv e fo rm s of a g ricu lt u re. 9 9. M ult il ater al f ina ncia l inst itutio ns have a cr ucia l r o le to pl ay. T he W orld B ank is pr esent ly r eo rient ing it s pr ogra m mes to wa rd s grea ter env ironm ental co ncer ns. T his sh ou ld b e acco mpa nied b y a f u nd am ent al co mmitm ent t o su staina ble dev elopm ent b y t h e Bank . I t is also essent ial t h at t h e Reg iona l D ev elopm ent B ank s and t h e Int erna tio na l M onet ary F und inco rpo ra te sim ilar o b ject ives in th eir po licies and pr ogra m mes. A new priorit y a nd f o cu s is also need ed in bil ater al a id a g encies. 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 15/16 100. Giv en th e lim itatio ns on incr easing pr esent f lo ws of int erna tio na l a id , pr opo sals fo r secu ring a d dit io na l r ev enu e fr o m t h e use of int erna tio na l co mmons and na tu ra l r eso urces shou ld no w be ser iousl y co nsid ered b y g o ver nm ents. IV . A C all f o r A ctio n 10 1. O ver t h e co urse of t h is cent ury , t h e rel atio nsh ip bet ween th e hum an wo rld a nd t h e pl anet th at su stains it h as und ergo ne a pr ofo u n d ch ang e. 102. W hen th e cent ury b eg an, neit her h um an nu mber s no r t ech nolo gy h ad t h e po wer r a d ica lly t o a lt er pl anet ary sy stem s. A s th e cent ury cl oses, no t o nl y d o v a st ly incr eased h um an nu mber s and th eir a ct ivities have th at po wer , b u t m ajo r, u nint ended ch ang es are occu rr ing in th e atm osph ere, in soils, in wa ter s, a m ong pl ant s and a nim als, a nd in th e rel atio nsh ips am ong a ll o f t h ese. T he ra te of ch ang e is ou tst ripping t h e ab il it y o f scient ific discipl ines and o u r cu rr ent ca pa bil it ies to a ssess and a d vise. I t is fr u st ra ting t h e att em pts of po lit ica l a nd eco nomic inst itutio ns, wh ich evolv ed in a d if fer ent , m ore fr a g m ent ed wo rld , t o a d apt a nd co pe. I t d eepl y wo rries many peo ple wh o a re seek ing wa ys to pl ace th ose concer ns on th e po lit ica l a g end as. 10 3. T he onu s lies with no o ne gro u p of n atio ns. D ev eloping co unt ries fa ce th e ob vio us lif e- th rea tening ch alleng es of d eser tif ica tio n, d ef orest atio n, a nd po llu tio n, a nd end ure m ost o f t h e po ver ty a sso ciated wit h env ironm ental d eg ra d atio n. T he ent ire hum an fa m ily o f na tio ns wo uld su ffer f r o m t h e disa ppea ra nce of r a in fo rest s in th e tr o pics, t h e lo ss of pl ant a nd a nim al species, a nd ch ang es in ra inf all pa tter ns. I nd ust ria l na tio ns fa ce th e lif e- th rea tening ch alleng es of t o xic ch em icals, t o xic wa stes, a nd a cid ifica tio n. A ll na tio ns may su ffer f r o m t h e rel ea ses by ind ust ria liz ed co unt ries of ca rb on dio xid e and o f g ases th at r ea ct wit h t h e ozo ne la yer , a nd f r o m any f u tu re wa r f o u gh t wit h t h e nu clea r a rsena ls co ntro lled b y t h ose natio ns. A ll na tio ns wil l h ave a r o le to pl ay in chang ing t r end s, a nd in rig hting a n int erna tio na l eco nomic system t h at incr eases ra th er t h an decr eases ineq ualit y, t h at incr eases ra th er t h an decr eases number s of po or a nd h ung ry . 10 4. T he nex t f ew deca des are cr ucia l. T he tim e has co me to b rea k o u t o f pa st pa tter ns. A ttem pts to m aint ain socia l a nd eco lo gica l st ab il it y t h ro u gh o ld a ppr oach es to d ev elopm ent a nd env ironm ental pr otect ion wil l incr ease instab il it y. S ecu rit y m ust b e so ugh t t h ro u gh ch ang e. T he Co mmissio n has no ted a nu mber o f a ct io ns th at m ust b e ta k en to r ed uce risk s to su rv iv al a nd t o pu t f u tu re dev elopm ent o n pa th s th at a re su staina ble. Yet we are awa re th at su ch a r eo rient atio n on a co ntinu ing b asis is sim ply b ey ond t h e rea ch o f pr esent d ecisio n-mak ing st ru ct ures and inst itutio na l a rra ng em ent s, b oth na tio na l a nd int erna tio na l. 10 5. T his Co mmissio n has been caref ul t o b ase ou r r eco mmend atio ns on th e rea lit ies of pr esent inst itutio ns, o n wh at ca n and m ust b e acco mplish ed t o d ay. B ut t o k eep opt ions open fo r f u tu re g ener atio ns, t h e pr esent g ener atio n m ust b eg in no w, a nd b eg in to get her . 10 6. T o a ch iev e th e need ed ch ang es, we bel iev e th at a n act ive fo llo w- up of t h is repo rt is im per ativ e. I t is wit h t h is in mind t h at we call f o r t h e U N Gener al A ssem bly , u po n du e co nsid eratio n, t o t r a nsf orm t h is repo rt in to a U N P ro gra m me on Su st aina ble D ev elopm ent. Specia l f o llo w- up co nferences could b e in itia ted a t t h e reg iona l l ev el. W ithin an appr opr iate per iod a ft er t h e pr esent atio n of t h is repo rt t o t h e Gener al A ssem bly , a n int erna tio na l co nference co uld b e co nv ened t o r ev iew progress mad e, a nd t o pr om ote fo llo w up arra ng em ent s th at wil l b e need ed t o set b ench mark s and t o m aint ain hum an pr ogress. 10 7. F ir st a nd f o rem ost , t h is Co mmissio n has been concer ned wit h peo ple – o f a ll co unt ries and a ll wa lk s of l if e. A nd it is to peo ple th at we ad dress ou r r epo rt. T he ch ang es in hum an attit udes th at we call f o r d epend o n a v a st ca mpa ign of ed uca tio n, d eb ate, a nd pu blic pa rticipa tio n. T his ca mpa ign m ust st art no w if su staina ble hum an pr ogress is to b e ach iev ed. 108. T he M em ber s of t h e W orld Co mmissio n on Env ironm ent a nd D ev elopm ent ca me fr o m 2 1 ver y d if fer ent na tio ns. I n ou r d iscu ssions, we disa greed o ft en on det ail s and pr iorit ies. B ut despit e ou r wid ely d if fer ing b ack gro u nd s a nd v a ry ing na tio na l a nd int erna tio na l r espo nsibilit ies, we wer e ab le to a g ree to t h e lines alo ng wh ich ch ang e m ust b e dra wn. 6/1/2020 Our Common Future: From One Earth to One World – A/42/427 Annex, Overview – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov .htm#I 16/16 109. W e are una nim ou s in ou r co nv ict ion th at t h e secu rit y, wel l- b eing , a nd v er y su rv iv al o f t h e pl anet d epend o n su ch ch ang es, no w.




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