Please read all the information on the attachment files to find the answer to the questions. New Orleans to Chicago Worksheet1.     1. In what ways did early jazz bands differ from their Ragtime, Brass band and Blues predecessors? (List was given)2.     What instruments make up a typical traditional New Orleans jazz band (Dixieland band) and describe the basic job of each instrument, or section, of a traditional New Orleans jazz band. (Actually the player of each instrument…but you know what I mean. J)3.     The first “jazz” recording was made by what band and in what year?4.     What was “The Great Migration”?5.     When was the 18th Amendment to the U.S. constitution, alcohol prohibition, enacted?6.     What instrument did Jelly Roll Morton play and list two things that make him important to jazz history.7.     Who was King Oliver? What were two things that made him important?8.     List the seven of Louis Armstrong’s contributions to jazz, as given in the reading, and what were some of his nicknames?9.     What instrument did Bix Beiderbecke play and what qualities make him stand out?10.  Describe “City Blues” and name at least one prominent performer. How is it different from the “Delta Blues”?
Please read all the information on the attachment files to answer the questions. New Orleans to Chicago Worksheet 1. 1. In what ways did early jazz bands differ from their Ragtime, Brass band and
New Orleans to Chicago Review 1. Early jazz evolved from blues, brass band and ragtime influences combining in the wild party town of New Orleans. “Storyville” was the red -light gambling dist rict which, along with the poorer “battlefield” district, gave musicians opportunities for more work than they could handle. Jazz developed out of the constant need for new and exciting dance music. 2. The “front line” of a traditional Dixieland band includes trumpet, clarinet and trombone. Each has its ow n duty in collective improvisation. 3. The “Original Dixieland Jass band” made the first jazz recording in 1917 in New York. 4. The “Great Migration” of the early 1900s sent millions of African -Americans north in search of opportunity and less discrimination. 5. Al cohol prohibition in 1920 actually caused an increase in partying and control of the scene was given to organized crime. 6. Jelly Roll Morton gets credit for being jazz’s first composer and standardizing the early jazz style. 7. King Oliver is one of the first r eally successful Chicago jazz acts and a mentor to Louis Armstrong. 8. Louis Armstrong is considered by many to be the most influential musician in all of jazz history. He brings “swing”, virtuosity, individual soloing and a new singing style to the table. 9. Bix Beiderbecke offers a different yet equally compelling “cool” style. 10. The “City” or “Classic” Blues involved a black female singer singing about pain and suffering etc. It was performed with a full band as opposed to the “Delta” blues which was usually a s ingle male performer with a guitar (and, hopefully, a hound dog at his feet!)
Please read all the information on the attachment files to answer the questions. New Orleans to Chicago Worksheet 1. 1. In what ways did early jazz bands differ from their Ragtime, Brass band and
West End Blues “West End Blues” is perhaps the most celebrated of the early Louis Armstrong recording. The opening trumpet cadenza (a fancy solo segment) tells everyone to “listen up, something special is about to happen.” The solos are taken individually. Louis scat sings in the middle. Listen to the tune and follow along with this time coded description: “West End Blues ” 0:00 Lo uis Armstrong’s opening cadenza 0:13 First chorus: Head stated by Armstrong 0:50 Second chorus: trombone solo by Fred Robinson; also note the clopity -clop accompaniment by drummer Zutty Singleton 1:24 Third chorus: clarinet solo by Jimmy Strong with scat s inging accompaniment by Louis 1:59 Fourth chorus: piano solo by Earl “Fatha” Hines 2:32 Fifth chorus: trumpet solo by Armstrong 2:56 Piano cadenza, tag (a little section used to end a tune). Louis Armstrong’s power and style was so pervasive that virtuall y every jazz musician after him was affected in some way. In 1922 he went up the river to join King Oliver’s band…Chicago jazz was never the same. In 1924, at the urging of his wife Lil (the pianist in Oliver’s band), he went to New York to play with the h ottest band in New York…the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra…swing was born.
Please read all the information on the attachment files to answer the questions. New Orleans to Chicago Worksheet 1. 1. In what ways did early jazz bands differ from their Ragtime, Brass band and
The first “jazz” recording The honor of making the first “jazz” record goes to a white ensemble called the Original Dixieland Jass Band. (Yes, I said “jass”. Early spellings disagreed.) 1. The Original Dixieland Jass Band While historians and musicologists might argue the relative musical merit of the ensemble there is no doubt that they caused a sensation in New York and brought the New Orleans sound to the world. The recording session took place in New York City on Februa ry 26, 1917. The resulting record, with “Livery Stable Blues” on one side and “Dixie Jass Band One Step” on the other, sold over a million copies. Although this recording was very successful and is a stepping stone in the popularity of jazz, it is probab ly not a good representation of New Orleans jazz at the time. Some describe it as orchestrated ragtime. The rhythm was still very stiff and march -like. It may be a better representation of the jazz of about 1900 to 1905. The members of the ODJB claimed the y weren’t influenced by any black or Creole bands from New Orleans, but most scholars would disagree. Many go as far as to say that their music was directly copied from their black and Creole predecessors and their collective “improvisation” was entirely w orked out ahead of time. Here is “ Livery Stable Blues ”. This could almost be considered a novelty tune with all the horse sounds and “smears”, but it was very popular and caused a sensation.
Please read all the information on the attachment files to answer the questions. New Orleans to Chicago Worksheet 1. 1. In what ways did early jazz bands differ from their Ragtime, Brass band and
“Jelly Roll” Morton The Main Characters When talking about early jazz, a few names must come up:  Jelly Roll Morton  King Oliver  Louis Armstrong  Bix Beiderbecke Jelly Roll Morton (1880 or 1885 -1941) – Jelly Roll Morton could be called the father of jazz piano. He was the first to synthesize the blues, ragtime and European forms of music into a new and original piano style. He was the first to recognize jazz as a style that could be applied to any tune. He was also the first to actually write out and arrange tunes in a jazz style, making him the first jazz composer. According to his biography, he began playing in the “sporting” (gambling and prostitution) houses of Storyville around 1900. He found he could make anywhere from $20 to $100 a night in tips alone. When his mama found out he was lying about his “night watchman” job she promptly kicked his out of the house. In 1903, in spite of his great earning potential and stimulating work environment, Jelly Ro ll left New Orleans and traveled all over the country for the next 19 years. During this time he continued to play, write and arrange music, but also was a pool hustler, gambler and even a pimp! Although jazz is primarily an improvised form Jelly Roll was much more detailed in what he wanted his music to sound like. In 1922 he finally settled in Chicago. His band “The Red Hot Peppers” made some very influential records between 1926 and 1930. His highly arranged, meticulously rehearsed recordings set the st age for the future swing era of the 1930s and 1940s. Unfortunately, like many jazz artists, he died in relative obscurity and penniless in Los Angeles, 1941. Listen to: Jelly Roll Morton’s Red Hot Peppers “ Dead Man Blues ”, recorded in 1926. King Oliver (1885 -1938) – Joe “King” Oliver was an original king of early jazz in New Orleans. He was a mentor to a young Louis Armstrong. He was one of the first to make the trip up the Mississippi to Chicago. He found success early and was very popular in the windy city. King Ol iver asked Louis Armstrong to join him in 1922. On July 8, 1922, Louis headed to Chicago to play with his idol. The Chicago style was a little tougher and raw compared to the New Orleans style. The previously heard “ Dippermouth Blues ” is a good example.
Please read all the information on the attachment files to answer the questions. New Orleans to Chicago Worksheet 1. 1. In what ways did early jazz bands differ from their Ragtime, Brass band and
Delta Blues Musician -Mississippi Fred McDowell City Blues vs. Delta Blues You might have noticed that a bunch of the song from the 1920s have “blues” in their titles. There was a blues mania going on in America at this time. It seemed that every recording artist put the word “blues” in their song whether or not there were any blues qualities in the tune or not! If the record had the word “blues” on it, people would buy it. This craze didn’t start out of nowhere. On August 10, 1920 a vaudeville singer and dancer named Mamie Smith (1890 -1937) recorded “Crazy Blues” at the Okeh stud io in New York. To the surprise of everyone, the little tune sold over a million copies in the first year! The “Classic” or “City” blues era was born. This wasn’t the public’s first exposure to the blues. The first wave of blues hits came in the form of s heet music. W.C. Handy (1873 -1958) was a college educated bandleader who heard the blues performed at a train station in Tutwiler, Mississippi in 1903. Although he thought it was, “the weirdest music I had ever heard,” the tune stuck in his head. After yea rs of similar incidents throughout the South he decided to notate and publish some tunes in the style he kept hearing. The first official 12 -bar blues hit was “Memphis Blues” in 1912. The blues overtook ragtime in popularity. In 1914 he published “The St. Louis Blues” which became one of the most recorded and played songs of the early 20 th century. Mamie Smith’s “Crazy Blues” started an incredible wave of blues recordings. Everyone was looking for the next “blues” singer to put out the next blues hit. The basic formula of a black female vocalist singing with a mournful and tragic delivery was copied hundreds of times. These “Classic” or “City” blues records fit into the category of “race” records. Many small independent and black owned record labels were fo rmed and all of the major labels had “race” subsidiaries. Labels like Black Swan, Okeh, Vocalion and Brunswick sold millions of albums, many of them to white consumers who knew a good thing when they heard it. The classic or city blues differs from the De lta blues in that it is almost always a female singer with a band. Generally these tunes were recorded in New York or Chicago. The Delta blues is usually just a man and his guitar singing a rough blues while sitting on the porch or at the train station etc . There were a number of classic blues singers that achieved varying degrees of success during the 1920s. Gertrude “Ma” Rainey (1886 -1939), sometimes called “The Mother of the Blues,” Victoria Spivey (1908 -1976), Ida Cox (1896 -1967), Alberta Hunter (1895 -1984) and Chippie Hill (1905 -1950) all enjoyed some successes. The biggest success, “The Empress of the Blues” was Bessie Smith (1894 -1937). Bessie Smith was the epitome of the hard drinking, hot tempered, tough, even mean blues singer. She was a bi g physical woman who was known to beat up her rivals and cuss at her audiences. In 1923 she recorded her first record, “Downhearted Blues”. It sold 750,000 copies and established her as a star immediately. Her fans were so eager to see her that those who c ouldn’t get tickets often caused a riot. In 1925 she recorded “St. Louis Blues” with Louis Armstrong and in 1929 she appeared in a short film singing the song. Bessie Smith sold well throughout the 1920s but, like all of the blues singers of the time , her career began to fade in the last few years of the decade. The Depression of 1929 killed record sales and brought the “classic” or “city” blues era to an end. Bessie died in an auto accident in 1937 on her way to a gig. The next page has a link to the record with Louis and a YouTube link to the film. Check out how different the two versions are!
Please read all the information on the attachment files to answer the questions. New Orleans to Chicago Worksheet 1. 1. In what ways did early jazz bands differ from their Ragtime, Brass band and
Louis Armstrong Louis Armstrong (1901 -1971) – When jazz scholars debate on who was, or is, the most important figure in all of jazz history Louis Armstrong is often at the top of the list. He triumphed over a broken home, abject poverty and intense racism to become a wealthy, famous, jazz icon and ambassador to the world. Louis Armstrong’s contributions and innovations  Changed the focus to individual soloists – Louis showed that collective improvisation was not the only way to go. Partly bec ause of him and his “Hot Five” and “Hot Seven” recordings post -Armstrong styles usually featured solo improvisation rather than collective improvisation.  Set the standard for the “swing” feel – Louis was able to abandon the stiffness of ragtime. He was the man who really showed the way to swing eighth note patterns. His effortless shifting of phrasing to opposite sides of the beat really gave the music that forward propelling feel.  Made virtuosity a requirement – Louis was truly a master of his instrumen t. He played higher, louder, faster (if needed) and with more expression and personality than anyone before him. During his early recording sessions with King Oliver he was asked to play from the back of the room because his trumpet was so much more powerf ul than the rest of the band (this was in the days of playing into a gigantic funnel which mechanically etched the sounds on to a disc or cylinder).  Allowed for harmonic improvisation – Most soloists before Louis basically embellished the melody of the tune itself. While Louis did this better than anyone, he also would go off on improvisational tangents that had no relation to the original tune but made total sense against the ba cking harmonies. (Spontaneous composition)  He often used popular tunes – The prac tice of “jazzing up” popular tunes has become the paradigm for jazz performance today. By often using “popular” tunes for his recordings and improvisations the audience has something familiar to “hang on to” while experiencing his ingenious improvisat ions.  He changed the way “pop” singers sang from that point on. His swinging delivery while toying with the beat, and changing up the melody made the “straight” singers before sound stale and dated. Listen to a little of Nelson Eddy and Jeanette MacDonald singing “Indian Love Call ”. Then check out a little of Louis Armstrong singing “ Dinah ” from about the same time. Nelson Eddy’s style is instantly old and “square”!!  He introduced “scat singing” to the world -While this style had been around in New Orleans, Louis was the guy who made it famous and popular. “Scat singing” is the art of singing nonsense syllables instead of actual lyrics in order to imitate the way an instrumentalist would solo.
Please read all the information on the attachment files to answer the questions. New Orleans to Chicago Worksheet 1. 1. In what ways did early jazz bands differ from their Ragtime, Brass band and
New Orleans to Chicago – The Jazz Age Early Jazz Bands Early jazz bands differ from its ragtime, brass band and blues roots in several ways:  Much of the performance was improvised  Rhythmic feeling is much looser and relaxed, thus anticipating the jazz swing feeling.  It generated much of its own repertory of compositions.  Collective improvisation created a much more complex product than was typical in blues, ragtime, or brass band music. As mentioned in the “Roots” unit, late 19 th century and early 20 th century New Orleans was a major party town. Demand for dance music was huge. A wide variety of musical styles and skill levels came together in time and space to meld into the music that would become known as jazz. Poor black musicians with little fo rmal training interacted with skilled musicians from a European tradition. The “trained” musicians absorbed the blues feel and freedom to embellish the music. The “untrained” learned new tunes, styles, and some learned how to read and write music. In New O rleans, the brass band was very popular. These brass bands started to add blues influences and instruments (i.e. the banjo for a rhythmic chording instrument). Brass bands were portable. They were used for weddings, funerals and everything in between. Early brass bands played regular dance music, but as the less skilled, poor population got their hands on the instruments, the playing became more expressive and improvisational. Many knew some popular tunes but had no formal training. They just figure d it out and played by ear! As the bands started to improvise more and more of their parts, the method of collective improvisation began to develop. This sound has come to be known as “traditional New Orleans jazz” or “Dixieland jazz”. In this traditional New Orleans style everyone is improvising at once but each person fills a specific role. The “front line” (usually cornet, trombone and clarinet) comes from the brass band tradition. A rhythm section of drums, upright bass (or tuba), ba njo (or guitar) and piano adds chordal and rhythmic support.  Trumpet or Cornet – (A coronet is a stubby version of a trumpet. They have a slightly mellower tone, but the notes and how you play them are exactly the same.) The trumpet plays the basic melody o f the tune with embellishments as seen fit.  Trombone – The trombone plays slippery counter melodies below (lower in pitch) and in between the trumpet’s lines.  Clarinet – The clarinet plays a flowery counter melody above and around the Trumpet’s line.  The Rh ythm Section – Bass, drums and chord playing instruments provide solid beat and chord progression. Listen to this recording of King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band playing “Dippermouth Blues ” recorded in 1923. The soloists are Johnny Dodds on clarinet and Joseph “King” Oliver on trumpet. This is a great example of the collective improvisation style. Everyone is improvising simultaneously but within their role. This recording includes a young Lo uis Armstrong who goes on to become one of the most influential musicians in the history of jazz. King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band. That’s Louis Armstrong on front.
Please read all the information on the attachment files to answer the questions. New Orleans to Chicago Worksheet 1. 1. In what ways did early jazz bands differ from their Ragtime, Brass band and
Prohibition and Gangsters In 1920 the 18 th Amendment outlawing alcohol was passed. Led by the Anti -Saloon League and the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, the dry forces had triumphed by linking Prohibition to a variety of Progressive era social causes. Proponents of Prohibition included many women reformers who were concerned about alcohol’s link to wife beating and child abuse and industrialists, such as Henry Ford, who were concerned about the impact of drinking on labor productivity. Ad vocates of Prohibition argued that outlawing drinking would eliminate corruption, end machine politics, and help Americanize immigrants. Prohibition was enacted January 16, 1920 Rather than putting an end to all the partying and decadence, prohibition enhanced it. The law was basically unenforceable and was virtually ignored by most of the population. Having and consuming booze wasn’t illegal…just making and selling it. The a dded thrill of going to an “illegal” speakeasy just made your night out that much more exciting. Gangsters gained control of most of the production of the booze and the speakeasies in which it was sold. Music, dancing and a little danger were all part of t he fun. Alphonse “Scarface” Capone
Please read all the information on the attachment files to answer the questions. New Orleans to Chicago Worksheet 1. 1. In what ways did early jazz bands differ from their Ragtime, Brass band and
The Jazz Age 1.Chicago’s State Street While jazz was born and raised in New Orleans, it became an adult in Chicago. The 1920s were a period of great change and innovation in America. Radio, motion pictures, automobiles, phonograph records, skyscrapers, Charles Lindberg, Babe Ruth, Trans -Atlantic phone calls….America and the world were moving forward. This new and exciting time called for new and exciting music. Jazz was well placed to take advantage. Jazz came to symboliz e the new undeniably bold spirit of America in the 1920s as well as its slang, clothing and dance styles. This prompted F. Scott Fitzgerald to label the 1920s “The Jazz Age”. This is the time of “flappers”, “speakeasies”, women’s right to vote (19 th amen dment – 1920), dance crazes like “The Charleston” and gangsters. The “Great Migration” took place between 1916 and 1930. Millions of Southern black Americans moved up the Mississippi river to Chicago and North to New York. Many came to escape discriminatio n and Jim Crow laws, but mainly it was jobs, jobs, jobs. The musicians came too. Hundreds of bars, restaurants, society clubs, cafes and dance halls had plenty of work for talented musicians. Kansas City and Chicago became wide open party towns just like N ew Orleans before them. The alcohol prohibition of 1920 didn’t slow things down much at all.

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