***Answer questions:What impact on society do you think the depleting fossil fuel reserves will cause?Do you think we are feeling the impact already? How?What are some of the impacts of using fossil fuels on the environment? Are they worth it?Are the risks of using Nuclear Power worth it? Why?Do you think the war in the Middle East has anything to do with Fossil Fuel Resources? What backs up your opinion?What energy resources and technology do you think the U.S.A. should be investing in? Why?What are your predictions for future due to fossil fuel depleting and energy consumption increasing?What do you think we can do as individuals to help?*** And also answer question in 2 files below:Oil Reserve Lab

Objective: To explore the amount of oil reserves left on Earth and to predict when the

reserves will run out.

Notes: Make sure to answer the questions in the lab in the lab write up. Students are

allowed to do this lab individually or with a partner. If with a partner, both partners

must write and submit their own labs and indicate who their lab partner is. Lab writeups should not be identical otherwise it is considered plagiarism. Lab write-up format is

given in the syllabus.

Materials Required:

Map of the globe (flat version, can get online and print but larger is

better)

A list of the top 20 oil reserve countries (See Energy Source and Energy

Conservation Part C, second to last slide)

Enough of the same object to represent the total billions of barrels of

oil (Each object could represent 1 or 2 or 5 billion if desired,

suggested object would be pennies)

Ability to take and upload a digital picture (edit your pictures so less pixels for

submission)

Steps:

1 Calculate how many billions of barrels left by adding up the countries reserves in

your list.

2 Determine how many billions of barrels each of your objects will represent.

3 Place objects on map to represent Oil Reserves.

4 Take a picture and submit with your lab.

5 What observations can you make?

6 Oil consumption is estimated to be 30 billion barrels a year. With current

resources and consumption rate, when will oil reserves run out? (Divide total

amount of reserves by 30)

Velocity Lab

Objective: Be able to explain how to calculate velocity of an object moving at constant

velocity.

Note: This Lab does not require a full lab write-up as outlined in the syllabus.

You need submit your completed table and graph, answer the questions

included in the lab and write a short paragraph summary. Students are allowed

to do this lab individually or with a partner. If with a partner, both partners must write

and submit their own labs and indicate who their lab partner is.

Background Information: You will probably find this lab the most difficult of the labs

in this course, especially if math is not your favorite subject. It is the only lab that

requires using some basic physics and graphing. The future labs will be easier, but I

suggest NOT using your drop one lab ability because you may need it later in the

semester for an emergency. I have included a tutorial on graphing for those of you that

may need a refresher. The tutorial is located in this module under Lab.

In the lab once the ball leaves the ramp there is no longer the effect of gravity,

therefore the ball’s velocity is no longer increasing but rather a constant velocity. In this

lab, we will be measuring this constant velocity. Note that slower velocities may occur

in your longer distance runs due to friction.

When scientists perform experiments, they do a test multiple times and then average

the results to achieve the best accuracy possible. If there is a test run that is very

different from the others, a scientist may discard that test run believing that there was

an error in its measurement. If you have a result that is very different from the others,

you need to think about why it was different and whether that test run’s measurements

should be discarded.

In this lab we are going to use 2 methods to find the average velocity of the test runs.

Method 1 requires calculating each test run’s velocity and taking the mathematical

average of the velocities. This is similar to what was done in Lab 1. Method 2 requires

graphing the test run data and using the slope of the best fit line to calculate the

average velocity. Watch the tutorial if you want a graphing refresher.

Materials Required:

Ramp to roll a ball down (possibilities include a wrapping paper tube and with

some books under one end)

Smooth surfaced ball (that can be rolled down the ramp you chose, smooth to

reduce friction and not bouncy. For example, a marble)

Long smooth surface (for ball to roll on after leaving the ramp, examples

smooth floor or table)

Tape (to hold ramp and measuring device in place)

Metric tape measure or meter stick

Method of timing (must measure time from end of ramp to desired distance,

can use clocks, watch, some cell phones or stop watch if available)

Calculator

Graph Paper

Pencil

Ability to take a Digital Picture

Steps:

1. Use the following table to record your data.

Test Run #

Time

Distance

Velocity (d/t)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Average

N/A

N/A

2. Create a ramp as shown in the Velocity Lab Diagram. A suggestion to create

a ramp is to use a wrapping paper card board tube with some books under

one end. There should be no bumps on the ramp or floor. Assure that your

ramp will not move between test runs by taping it in place.

Question #1: Why is it important to not have bumps in the ramp or floor?

Question #2: Why is it important that the ramp is not moved between test

runs?

3. Choose a smooth ball of the appropriate size to roll down the ramp you have

constructed. For best test results a ball with minimum bouncing ability is

suggested.

Question #3: From what you have learned of basic physics, why will a less

bouncy ball give better test results?

4. Mark the starting point of the ball on the ramp. Each test run needs to start

at the same point on the ramp so that the velocity of the ball when it reaches

the floor is the same for each test run. The lower on the ramp the starting

point the slower the velocity. Slower velocity may be better if you do not

have a very accurate timing device.

5. Try a test run. The ball should go straight once it leaves the ramp unless the

floor or table is slanted. Position the ramp to get the ball to travel as straight

as possible. If needed, place something on each side of the ball’s path as side

rails to keep it going straight.

6. Place metric tape measure or measuring device on the floor with the 0 point

at the position the ball hits the floor.

7. Time to do 10 test runs. For each test run, release the ball from the same

starting point. Start timing the ball when the ball hits the floor and finish

timing at a predetermined location. (Make sure to vary your distances

(final location) so that you have varied distances in your table and graph.

Distances might be start around 70 cm and then add 10 or 20 cm each test

run, but will vary on each student’s available floor space and timing device).

Record each test run distance and time in the table.

Method 1 for calculating average velocity:

8. Calculate the velocity in the last column using the formula v=d/t.

Question 4: Are any of the result velocities very different from the others?

If so, why do you think it is and do you think the run should be discarded?

9. Calculate the average velocity of the test runs by adding all velocities in the

last column and dividing by the number of runs. Record.

Method 2 for calculating average velocity:

For those students needing a refresher in graphing and best fit line, watch the

graphing tutorial found in this modules lab section. In addition these sites may

be helpful:

http://www.mathgoodies.com/lessons/graphs/line.html

http://www.mathsteacher.com.au/year10/ch16_statistics/09_linebestfit/24line.ht

m

http://illuminations.nctm.org/ActivityDetail.aspx?id=146

10. On a piece of graph paper, create a graph similar to the one shown in

PhysicsPlace.Com Interactive Figure 3.01 or the graphing tutorial. Time will

be on the x-axis (horizontal axis on the bottom) distance on the (y-axis). In

order to use graphing to find the average of a ratio as in our velocity ratio

v=d/t, the numerator (number on the top of the fraction) must go on the y-

axis and the denominator (number on the bottom of the fraction) must go on

the x-axis.

11. For best accuracy of your results it is better to use as much of the graph

paper as possible, this means choosing what each square of the graph

represents wisely. It is important to note that the scale (how much each scale

represents) of the x –axis and y-axis can be different. Start both the x and y

axis at 0 and the largest possible number for each your distance and time

must fit on the axis. Number your x and y axis.

12. Plot the points of each test run and label the data points on your graph. To

plot each point, simply follow from each axis the distance and time of the test

run horizontally and vertically on the graph paper until the 2 lines meet.

13. Once all the data points are plotted you are to place a best fit line through

the dots plotted. A best fit line is a straight line. In this case, the best fit line

must go through the point (0,0) and then roughly through the middle of all

the other data points. (Note: A best fit line goes through (0,0) if it makes

sense for the experiment. In our case the (x,y) coordinate pair is

(time,distance), if the time =0 it makes sense that the distance = 0)

14. Once the line is plotted, the slope of the line will give you the average

velocity. To find the slope pick 2 points on the line that are NOT points from

a test run. For better accuracy pick points that aren’t close together on the

line. Slope is designated by the letter m and the formula is:

m=(y2-y1)/(x2-x1)

15. Record the calculated slope. This is your average velocity calculated by the

graphing method.

Compare Method 1 and Method 2 Results:

16. Compare the average velocity calculated in the table to the average velocity

calculated by graphing.

Question #5: Are the average velocities of the 2 methods close in number?

If not, what do you think is the cause of the difference?

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