Try to characterize the instrumental values (or wealth) and the other type of value (virtue). Note that in the West, intrinsic value is often seen as distinct from instrumental value. Try to understand what a Buddhist thinks about value, since we are looking at Eastern perspectives. Notice the emphasis placed on frugality and non-waste. As a clue to drawing the distinction, think about the virtue of non-wastefulness. Is it an instrumental value?You need to read the Document attached to answer this question!!Words: 800 Citation: APA
Try to characterize the instrumental values (or wealth) and the other type of value (virtue). Note that in the West, intrinsic value is often seen as distinct from instrumental value. Try to understan
6/7/2020 The Buddhist Attitude Towards Nature https://www.accesstoinsight.or g/lib/authors/desilva/attitude.html 1/13 Searc h » Lib ra ry » A uth ors » Lily d e S ilv a The Buddhist Attitude Towards Nature b y Lily de Silva © 2 005 M od er n m an in h is s ear ch fo r p leas ure an d affl uen ce h as ex plo it ed nat ure w it h ou t an y moral res tr ai nt t o s uch an exten t t hat nat ure h as been ren der ed al most i n cap able o f su stai nin g h eal th y l ife. I nval uab le g ift s o f n ature, s uch as air an d w ater , h ave b een pollu ted wit h s ev erely d is as tr o u s c on seq uen ces . M an is n ow s ear ch in g fo r w ay s an d mean s o f o ver co m in g t he p ollu tio n p ro b lem as his h eal th t oo i s al armin gly t hreat ened. H e also feel s t hat it i s i rres pon sib le an d m oral ly w ro n g o n h is p ar t t o c om mit t he fu tu re g en eratio n s t o a p ollu ted plan et. I f m an is t o ac t w it h a s ense o f respon sib ilit y t o t he nat ural w orld , t o h is fel lo w h um an beings an d t o u nborn fu tu re g eneratio n s, h e h as to fi nd an ap pro p riat e en vir o n m en tal et hic t o d ay to p rev en t fu rth er ag grav atio n o f t he p res en t pollu tio n p ro b lem . Hence h is s ear ch fo r w is d om an d at tit u des in a h it h er to n eg lec ted ar ea of k now led ge, n amely, r elig io n . B uddh is m str ic tly l im it s i ts el f t o t he d elin eat io n o f a w ay of l ife d esig n ed to er adic at e hum an suffer in g. T he B uddh a r efu sed to an sw er ques tio n s w hic h d id n ot d ir ec tly o r in dir ec tly b ear on t he c entr al p ro b le m of h um an suffer in g an d i ts en din g. F urth er more, en vir o n m en tal p ollu tio n is a p ro b lem of t he m od er n ag e, u nhear d o f an d u nsu sp ec ted d u rin g t he t im e o f the B uddh a. T her efo re i t i s d iffi cu lt t o fi nd an y s pec ifi c d is co u rs e w hic h d eal s w it h t he t op ic w e ar e inter es ted in h er e. N everth el es s, as Buddh is m is a fu ll-fl ed ged ph ilo so p h y o f l ife r eflectin g al l as pec ts o f ex per ien ce, i t i s p ossib le t o fi nd en ou gh m ater ial i n t he Pal i c an on t o d elin eat e the B uddh is t at tit u de t ow ar ds n at ure. T h e w ord “n ature” m eans ev eryth in g i n t he w orld w hic h is n ot o rg an iz ed an d c on str u cted b y m an. T he Pal i eq uiv al en ts w hic h c om e c lo ses t t o “n ature” ar e lo ka an d yat hab huta. T he fo rm er is u su al ly t ran slat ed as “w orld ” w hile t he l atter lit er ally m ean s “t hin gs as they real ly ar e.” T he w ord s d h am mat a an d n iyam a are u sed in t he Pal i c an on t o m ean “natural law or w ay .” Natu re a s D yn am ic Ac co rd in g t o B uddh is m chan geab ilit y i s o ne o f the p eren nial p rin cip les of n ature. Ev eryth in g c han ges in n at ure an d n oth in g r em ains s tat ic . T his c on cep t i s ex pres sed by t he Pal i t er m an ic ca. Ev eryth in g fo rm ed is i n a c on stan t p ro ces s o f c han ge (s ab be s ankh ar a an ic ca). [1] T he w orld i s t her efo re d efined as that w hic h d is in teg rat es (lujjat i t i l oko ); t he w orld i s s o c al led bec au se i t i s d yn am ic an d k in et ic , i t i s c on stan tly i n a p ro ces s o f under goin g c han ge. [2] I n n at ure t her e ar e no s tat ic an d s tab le “t hin gs”; t her e ar e only ev er-chan gin g, ev er-m ovin g p ro ces ses . R ain is a g ood ex am ple t o i llu str at e t his p oin t. T h ou gh w e u se a n ou n c al led “r ain” w hic h ap pear s t o d en ote a “t hin g,” r ain is n oth in g b ut th e p ro ces s o f d ro p s o f w ater fal lin g fr om the s kies . Ap art fr om this p ro ces s, t he ac tiv it y o f rai nin g, t her e i s n o r ai n as such w hic h c ou ld b e ex pres sed by a s eem in gly s tat ic n om in al 6/7/2020 The Buddhist Attitude Towards Nature https://www.accesstoinsight.or g/lib/authors/desilva/attitude.html 2/13 co n cep t. T he v ery el em ents o f s olid it y (p athavi ), liq u id it y (ap o), h eat (tejo ) an d m ob ilit y (vayo ), rec og n iz ed as the b uild in g m ater ial o f n ature, ar e all ev er-chan gin g p hen om en a. Even the m ost s olid l ookin g m ou nta in s an d t he v ery ear th t hat supports ev eryth in g o n it ar e n ot b ey on d t his i n ex orab le l aw of c han ge. O ne s utta ex plai ns h ow the m assiv e k in g o f m ou ntai ns — Mou nt Si ner u, w hic h is r ooted in t he g reat ocean to a d epth o f 8 4,0 00 leag ues an d w hic h r is es ab ove s ea l evel to an oth er great heigh t o f 8 4,0 00 leag ues an d whic h is v er y c las sic al sym bol o f s tab ilit y an d s tead fastn es s — also g et s d es tr o yed by heat , wit h ou t l eav in g ev en as hes , w it h t he ap pear ance o f m ult ip le s uns. [3] T hus c han ge i s th e v ery es sen ce o f nature. M ora lit y a n d N atu re Th e w orld p as ses thro u gh al ter nat in g c ycles of ev olu tio n an d d is so lu tio n , eac h o f w hic h en du res fo r a l on g p er io d o f t im e. T hou gh c han ge i s i n her en t i n n at ure, B uddh is m b eliev es th at nat ural p ro ces ses ar e affec ted b y t he m oral s o f m an. Acco rd in g t o t he A ggañ ña Su tta, [4] w hic h r el at es the B uddh is t l eg en d r eg ardin g t he ev olu tio n o f t he w orld , t he ap pear ance o f greed in t he p rim ord ial b eings — who at that tim e w ere s elf-l um in ou s, s ubsis tin g o n jo y, an d t rav ersin g i n t he s kies — cau sed the grad ual loss o f t hei r r ad ian ce an d t hei r ab ilit y t o s ubsis t o n jo y an d t o m ove ab ou t i n t he sk y. T he m oral d eg rad atio n h ad effec ts o n t he ex ter nal en vir o n m en t t oo. At that tim e t he en tir e ear th w as cover ed over by a v ery fl av ors o m e fr agran t s ubstan ce s im ilar to b utter . Wh en beings s tar ted par tak in g o f t his s ubstan ce w it h m ore an d m ore g reed , on t he o ne han d t hei r s ubtle b od ies bec am e coar ser an d c oar ser . O n t he o th er han d t he fl avors o m e su bstan ce i ts el f s tar ted grad ual ly d im in is h in g. Wi th t he s olid ifi cat io n o f b od ies differ ences o f fo rm ap pear ed; s om e w ere b eau tifu l w hile o th er s w ere h om ely. T her eu pon c on cei t m an ifes ted its el f i n t hose b eings, an d t he b eau tifu l o nes star ted lookin g d ow n u pon t he oth er s. As a result o f t hes e m oral b lem is h es the d elic io u s ed ib le ear th -s ubstan ce c o m plet ely d is ap pear ed. In its p lac e t her e ap pear ed ed ib le m ush ro om s an d l at er an oth er kin d o f ed ib le c reep er. I n t he b eings w ho s ubsis ted on t hem succes siv el y s ex differ entiat io n b ec am e m anifes t an d t he fo rm er m ethod o f s pon tan eous b ir th w as rep lac ed by s ex ual rep ro d u ctio n . Sel f-gro w in g r ic e ap pear ed on ear th an d t hro u gh laz in es s t o c ollec t eac h m eal man grew ac cu sto m ed to h oar din g fo od . As a res ult o f t his h oar din g h ab it , t he g ro w th r at e o f fo od co u ld n ot k eep pac e w it h t he r ate o f dem and. T her upon lan d h ad to b e d iv id ed am on g fam ilies . Aft er priv at e o wner sh ip o f l an d b ec am e the o rd er of t he d ay, those w ho w ere o f a more g reed y d is p osit io n s tar ted rob bin g fr om oth er s’ p lo ts o f l an d. Wh en they were det ec ted they den ied that they had sto len . T hus t hro u gh g reed vic es such as steal in g an d ly in g b ec am e m anifes t i n s ociet y. T o c urb t he w ro n g d oer s an d p unis h t hem a k in g w as elec ted by t he p eople an d t hus t he orig in al sim ple s ociet y b ec am e m uch m ore c om plex an d c om plic at ed . It i s s ai d t hat this m oral d eg en eratio n o f m an had ad ver se effec ts o n nat ure. T he r ic h nes s o f t he ear th d im in is h ed an d s elf-g ro w in g r ic e d is ap pear ed. M an had to t ill t he l an d an d c ult iv at e r ic e fo r fo od . T his r ic e g rai n w as en vel op ed in c haff; i t n eed ed clean in g b efo re c on su m ptio n . Th e p oin t I w is h t o em ph as iz e b y c it in g t his ev olu tio n ar y l eg en d i s t hat B uddh is m b eliev es th at thou gh c han ge i s a fac to r i n her en t i n n at ure, m an’s m oral d et er io rat io n ac cel er ates th e p ro ces s o f c han ge an d b rin gs ab ou t c han ges w hic h ar e ad ver se t o h um an well b eing an d h ap pin es s. 6/7/2020 The Buddhist Attitude Towards Nature https://www.accesstoinsight.or g/lib/authors/desilva/attitude.html 3/13 Th e Cak kavat tis ih an ada Su tta o f t he D ig h a N ik ay a p red ic ts t he fu tu re c ou rs e o f ev ents w hen hum an m oral s u nder go fu rth er deg en eratio n . [5] G rad ual ly m an’s h eal th w ill d et er io rat e s o m uch t hat life ex pec tan cy w ill d im in is h u ntil at las t t he av erag e h um an life- s p an is r ed uced to t en year s an d m arriag eab le ag e to fi ve y ear s. At that tim e al l d elic ac ies s u ch as ghee, b utter , h on ey , et c. w ill h av e d is ap pear ed from the ear th ; w hat is c on sid er ed th e p oores t c oar se fo od t od ay will b ec om e a d elic ac y o f t hat day . T hus B uddh is m m aintai ns t hat ther e i s a c lo se l in k b et ween man’s m oral s an d t he n atural res ou rc es av ailab le t o h im . Ac co rd in g t o a d is co u rs e i n t he An gu ttar a N ik ay a, w hen pro fl ig at e l ust, w anto n g reed , an d wro n g v alues grip t he h ear t o f m an an d i m moral it y b ec om es w id es pread in s ociet y, t im ely rai n d oes not fal l. Wh en tim ely r ai n d oes not fal l c ro p s g et ad ver sel y affec ted wit h v ar io u s kin ds o f p ests an d p lan t d is eas es. T hro u gh lac k o f n ou ris h in g fo od t he h um an m ortal it y r at e r is es . [6] Th us s ev eral suttas fr om the Pal i c an on s how that ear ly B uddh is m b eliev es ther e t o b e a clo se r elat io n sh ip b et ween hum an m oral it y an d t he n atural en vir o n m en t. T his i dea h as been system atiz ed in t he t heo ry o f t he fi ve n atural law s (p añ ca n iyam adham ma) in t he lat er com men tar ies . [7] Ac co rd in g t o t his t heo ry , i n t he c osm os t her e ar e five n atural law s or fo rc es at work , n am ely u tu niyam a (lit . “s eas on -l aw “), bijan iyam a (lit . “s eed -law “), cit tan iyam a, kam man iyam a, and dh am man iyam a. They can be t ran slat ed as physic al law s, b io lo g ic al law s, p sy ch olo g ic al law s, m oral law s, an d c au sal law s, r espec tiv el y. Wh ile t h e fi rs t fo ur l aw s o per ate w it h in t hei r r es pec tiv e s ph er es , the l ast-m entio n ed law of cau sal it y o per ates wit h in eac h o f t hem as well as am on g t hem . Th is m ean s t hat the p hysic al en vir o n m en t o f an y g iv en ar ea c on dit io n s t he g ro w th an d dev elop m en t o f i ts b io lo g ic al com pon en t, i .e. fl ora an d fau na. T hes e i n t urn in flu en ce t he th ou gh t p at ter n o f t he p eople i nter ac tin g w it h t hem . Mod es of t hin kin g d et er min e m oral s tan dar ds. T he o pposit e p ro ces s o f i nter ac tio n is al so p ossib le. T he m oral s o f m an in flu en ce n ot o nly t he p sy ch olo g ic al m akeu p o f t he p eople b ut t he b io lo g ic al an d p hysic al en vir o n m en t o f t he ar ea as well. T hus t he fi ve l aw s d em on str at e t hat m an an d n at ure ar e bou nd t og et her in a r ecip ro cal cau sal rel at io n sh ip w it h c han ges in o ne nec essar ily b rin gin g ab ou t c han ges in t he o th er . Th e c om men tar y o n t he Cak kavat tis ih an ada Su tta g oes on t o ex plai n t he p atter n o f m utu al in ter ac tio n fu rth er . [8] Wh en m ankin d i s d em oral iz ed thro u gh g reed , fam in e i s t he nat ural o utc o m e; w hen m oral d eg en eratio n is d ue t o i gn oran ce, ep id em ic i s t he i nev it ab le r es ult ; w hen hat red is t he d emoral iz in g fo rc e, w id es pread vio len ce i s t he u lt im at e ou tc o m e. I f an d w hen m ankin d r eal iz es that lar ge-s cal e d evastat io n h as t ak en plac e as a res ult o f h is m oral d eg en eratio n , a c han ge o f hear t t ak es plac e am on g t h e few surv iv in g hum an beings. Wi th g rad ual m oral reg en eratio n c on dit io n s i m pro ve t hro u gh a l on g p er io d of c au se an d effec t an d m ankin d ag ain s tar ts t o en joy g rad ual ly i n creas in g p ro sp er it y an d lo n ger life. T he w orld , i nclu din g n at ure an d m ankin d, s tan ds o r fal ls w it h t he t yp e o f m oral fo rc e at work . I f immoral it y g rip s s ociet y, m an an d n at ure d eter io rat e; i f moral it y r ei gn s, th e q ual it y o f h um an life an d n at ure i mpro ves . T hus g reed , hatred , an d d elusio n p ro d u ce p ollu tio n w it h in an d w it h ou t. G enerosit y , c om pas sio n , an d w is d om p ro d u ce p urit y w it h in an d w it h ou t. T his i s o ne r eas on t he Buddh a h as pro n ou nced that the w orld i s l ed by t he m in d, cit ten a n iyat i l oko . [9] T hus m an an d n at ure, ac co rd in g t o t he i deas expres sed in ear ly B uddh is m , ar e inter dep en den t. H um an U se o f N atu ra l R eso u rc e s 6/7/2020 The Buddhist Attitude Towards Nature https://www.accesstoinsight.or g/lib/authors/desilva/attitude.html 4/13 Fo r s urv iv al m ankin d h as to d ep en d o n n at ure fo r h is fo od , c lo th in g, s hel ter , m edic in e, an d o th er req uis it es . Fo r o ptim um b en efits m an has to u nder stan d n at ure s o t hat he c an utiliz e n atural res ou rc es an d l iv e h armon io u sly w it h n at ure. B y u nder stan din g t he w ork in g o f n ature — fo r ex am ple, t he s eas on al rai nfal l p at ter n, m ethod s o f c on ser vin g w ater by i rrig at io n , t he so il t yp es , the p hysic al con dit io n s r eq uir ed fo r g ro w th o f v ario u s fo od c ro p s, et c. — man can lear n t o g et bet ter ret urn s fr om h is ag ric u lt u ral p urs u it s . B ut t his l ear nin g h as to b e ac co m pan ied by m oral res tr ai nt i f h e is t o en joy t he b enefits o f n atural res ou rc es fo r a lo n g t im e. M an m ust l ear n t o s at is fy h is n eed s an d n ot feed his g reed s. T he r esou rc es of th e w orld ar e n ot u nlim it ed wher eas man’s g reed know s n eith er lim it n or s at iat io n . M od er n m an in h is u nbrid led vorac io u s g reed for p leas ure an d ac qu is it io n o f w ealth h as ex plo it ed nat ure t o t he p oin t o f n ear im pover is h m en t. O sten tat io u s c on su m er is m is ac cep ted as the o rd er of t he d ay. O ne w rit er say s t hat w it h in fo rty y ear s Am eric an s al on e h ave c on su m ed nat ural res ou rc es to t he q uan tit y o f w hat al l man kin d h as con su m ed fo r t he l ast 4 000 y ear s. [10] T he v ast n on -r ep len is h ab le r esou rc es o f fo ssil fu els w hic h t ook m illio n s o f y ear s t o fo rm h av e b een con su m ed wit h in a c ou ple o f cen tu ries to t he p oin t o f n ear exhau stio n . T his c on su m er is m h as giv en ris e t o an energy cris is o n t he o ne h and an d a p ollu tio n p ro b lem on t he o th er . M an’s u nres tr ai ned ex plo it at io n o f n ature t o g rat ify h is in sat iat e g reed rem in ds o ne o f the t rad it io n al p ar ab le o f t he g oose t hat lai d t he g old en eg gs. [11] B uddh is m tir el es sly ad vo cat es the v ir tu es of n on -g reed , non -h atred an d n on -d elusio n in al l h um an purs u it s . G reed breed s s orr o w an d u nheal th y c on seq uen ces . Co nten tm en t (san tu tth i) i s a m uch p rai sed vir tu e i n B uddh is m . [12] The m an lead in g a s im ple l ife w it h few wan ts eas ily s at is fi ed is u ph el d an d ap prec iat ed as an exem plar y c har ac ter . [13] Mis er lin es s [14] an d w astefu ln es s [15] ar e eq ual ly d ep lo red in B uddh is m as t w o d eg en erate ex tr em es. Weal th h as only i n str u m en tal v alue; i t i s t o b e u tiliz ed fo r t he s atis fac tio n o f m an ‘s n eed s. H oar din g i s a s ensel es s an ti-s ocial h ab it c om par ab le t o t he at tit u de o f the dog i n t he m anger . T he v ast h oar din g o f w ealth in s om e c ou ntr ies an d t he m ethod ic al d es tr u ctio n o f l ar ge q uan tit ies of ag ric u lt u ral p ro d u ce t o k eep the m arket pric es fr om fal lin g, w hile h alf t he w orld i s d yin g o f h unger an d s tar vat io n , i s r eal ly a s ad par ad ox o f th e p res en t affl uen t ag e. Buddh is m com men ds fr ugal it y as a v ir tu e i n its o wn r ig h t. O nce An anda ex plai ned to K in g U den a t he t hrift y ec on om ic u se o f rob es by t he m on ks i n t he fo llo w in g o rd er . Wh en new ro b es ar e received the o ld r ob es ar e u sed as cover let s, t he o ld c over let s as mattr es s co ver s, t he o ld m attr es s c over s as rugs, t he o ld r ugs as duster s, an d t he o ld t at ter ed du ster s ar e k nead ed wit h c lay an d u sed to r ep air c rac ked floors an d w alls . [16] T hus noth in g i s w asted . T hose w ho w aste ar e derid ed as “w ood -ap ple eat ers.” [17] A m an sh ak es the b ran ch o f a w ood -ap ple tr ee an d al l t he fr uit s , r ip e as well as unrip e, fal l. T he m an wou ld c ollec t o nly w hat he w ants an d w alk aw ay leav in g t he r est t o r ot. Su ch a w as tefu l at tit u de i s c er tai nly d ep lo re d i n B uddh is m as not o nly an ti-s ocial b ut c rim in al . Th e ex ces siv e ex plo it at io n o f n ature as is d on e t od ay wou ld c er tai nly b e c on dem ned by Buddh is m in t he s tr o n ges t p ossib le ter ms. B uddh is m ad vo cat es a g entle n on -ag gres siv e at tit u de t ow ar ds n at ure. Ac co rd in g t o t he Si gal ovad a Su tta a h ou seh old er shou ld ac cu m ulat e w ealth as a b ee c ollec ts p ollen from a flow er . [18] The b ee h arms n eith er the fr agran ce n or t he b eau ty o f t he fl ow er , b ut g at her s pollen to t urn it i n to s weet hon ey . Si milar ly , m an is ex pec ted to m ake l egit im at e u se o f nat ure s o t hat he c an ris e ab ove n ature an d r eal iz e h is i n nat e s pir it u al p oten tial . 6/7/2020 The Buddhist Attitude Towards Nature https://www.accesstoinsight.or g/lib/authors/desilva/attitude.html 5/13 Attit u de t o w ard s A nim al a n d P la n t L if e T h e w ell-k now n F iv e Pr ecep ts (p añ ca s ila) fo rm the m in im um cod e o f et hic s t hat ev ery l ay B uddh is t i s ex pec ted to ad her e t o. I ts fi rs t p rec ep t i n vo lv es ab sten tio n fr om in ju ry t o l ife. I t i s ex plai ned as the c astin g as id e of al l fo rm s o f w eap on s, b eing c on scien tio u s ab ou t dep riv in g a l iv in g b eing o f l ife. I n its p osit iv e s ense i t m ean s t he c ult iv at io n o f c om pas sio n an d s ym pat hy fo r al l l iv in g t hin gs. [19] T he B uddh is t l ay man is ex pec ted to ab stai n fr om tr ad in g i n m eat too. [20] T h e B uddh is t m on k h as to ab id e b y an even str ic ter cod e o f et hic s t han the l ayman . H e has to ab stai n fr om p rac tic es w hic h w ou ld i n vo lv e ev en unin ten tio n al in ju ry t o l iv in g creat ures . F or i n stan ce, t he B uddh a p ro m ulg at ed the r ule ag ainst g oin g o n a jo urn ey du rin g t he r ainy s eas on b ec au se o f possib le i nju ry t o w orm s an d i n sec ts t hat com e t o t he su rfac e in w et w eat her . [21] The s am e con cer n fo r n on -v io len ce p rev en ts a m on k fr om d ig gin g t he g ro u nd. [22] O nce a m on k w ho w as a p otter prio r t o o rd in at io n b uilt fo r h im sel f a c lay hut an d s et it o n fi re t o g iv e i t a fi ne fi nis h . T he B uddh a s tr o n gly o bjec ted to t his as s o m any l iv in g c reat ures w ou ld h av e b een burn t i n t he p ro ces s. T he h ut w as bro ken dow n on t he B uddh a’s in str u ctio n s t o p rev en t i t fr om creat in g a b ad prec ed en t fo r l at er gen eratio n s. [23] T he s cru pu lo u s n on vio len t at tit u de t ow ar ds ev en the s malles t l iv in g creat ures prev en ts t he m on ks fr om d rin kin g u nstr ai ned water . [24] It i s n o d ou bt a s ou nd hyg ien ic h ab it , b ut w hat is n otew orth y i s t he r eas on w hic h p ro m pts t he p rac tic e, n amely sy m pat hy fo r l iv in g c reat ures . Buddh is m al so p res crib es the p rac tic e o f met ta, “l ovin g-k in dn es s” t ow ar ds al l c reat ures of all q uar ter s w it h ou t r es tr ic tio n . T he K ar an iyam etta Su tta en join s t he c ult iv at io n o f l ovin g- kin dn es s t ow ar ds al l c reat ures tim id an d s tead y, l on g an d s hort, b ig an d s m all, m in ute an d g reat , vis ib le an d i n vis ib le, n ear an d far , born an d aw aitin g b ir th . [25] Al l q uar ter s ar e to b e s uffu sed wit h t his l ovin g at tit u de. J ust as one’s own life i s p rec io u s t o o nes elf, s o i s th e l ife o f the o th er prec io u s t o h im sel f. T her efo re a r everen tial at tit u de m ust b e cu lt iv at ed tow ar ds al l fo rm s o f l ife. T h e N an divi sal a J atak a illu str at es how k in dn es s s hou ld b e s how n t o an im als d om es tic at ed for h um an ser vic e. [26] Ev en a w ild an im al can be t am ed wit h k in d w ord s. Par iley ya w as a wild el ephan t w ho at ten ded on t he Buddh a w hen he s pen t t im e i n t he fo res t aw ay from th e m on ks. [27] T he i nfu riat ed el ephan t N alag ir i w as tam ed by t he B uddh a w it h n o o th er m ir ac ulo u s p ow er than the p ow er of l ovin g-k in dn es s. [28] M an an d b eas t c an liv e an d l et liv e w it h ou t fear of o ne an oth er if o nly m an cult iv at es sym pat hy an d r eg ards al l l ife w it h c o m pas sio n . Th e u nder stan din g o f k am ma an d r eb ir th , t oo, p rep ares the B uddh is t t o ad op t a s y m pat het ic at tit u de t ow ar ds an im als. Ac co rd in g t o t his b elief i t i s p ossib le fo r h um an bei ngs t o b e r eborn in s ubh um an stat es am on g an im als. T he K ukku ravat ik a Su tta c an be cit ed as a c anon ic al refer ence w hic h s ubstan tiat es this v iew . [29] The J atak as pro vid e am ple t estim on y t o t his v iew from com men tar ial lit er ature. I t i s p ossib le t hat our o wn clo se r elat iv es hav e b een reb orn as an im als. T her efo re i t i s o nly r ig h t t hat w e s hou ld t reat an im als w it h k in dn es s an d s ym pat hy. T he B uddh is t n otio n o f m erit al so en gen der s a g en tle n on -v io len t at tit u de t ow ar ds liv in g c reat ures . I t i s s ai d t hat if o ne t hro w s d is h – w as hin g w ater in to a p ool w her e t here ar e insec ts an d l iv in g c reat ures , inten din g t hat they feed on t he t in y p ar tic les of fo od t hu s w ashed aw ay, o ne ac cu m ulat es m erit ev en by s uch tr iv ial g en erosit y . [30] Ac co rd in g t o t he M ac ch uddan a J atak a the B od h is at ta t hrew his left over fo od i n to a r iv er in o rd er to feed the fi sh , an d b y t he p ow er of th at m erit h e w as sav ed from an im pen din g d is as ter . [31] Thus k in dn es s t o an im als, b e t hey b ig o r s m all, i s a 6/7/2020 The Buddhist Attitude Towards Nature https://www.accesstoinsight.or g/lib/authors/desilva/attitude.html 6/13 so u rc e o f m erit — merit n eed ed fo r h um an beings t o i m pro ve t hei r l ot i n t he c ycle o f reb ir th s an d t o ap pro ac h t he fi nal g oal o f N ib ban a. Buddh is m ex pres ses a g entle n on -v io len t at tit u de t ow ar ds t he v egetab le k in gdom as well. I t i s s ai d t hat one s hou ld n ot ev en break the b ran ch o f a t ree t hat has giv en one s hel ter . [32] Pl an ts ar e s o h elpfu l t o u s i n p ro vid in g u s w it h al l n ec essit ies of l ife t hat w e ar e expec ted not t o ad op t a c allo u s at tit u de t ow ar ds t hem . The m ore s tr ic t m on as tic r ules p rev en t t he m on ks fr om in ju rin g p la n t l ife. [33] Pr io r t o t he r is e o f Buddh is m p eo ple r eg arded nat ural p hen om en a s uch as mou ntai ns, fo res ts , g ro ves , an d t rees wit h a s en se o f aw e an d r ev eren ce. [34] T hey con sid er ed them as the ab od e o f pow er ful n on -h um an b eings w ho c ou ld as sis t h um an beings at tim es of need . Thou gh B uddh is m g av e m an a far super io r T rip le R efuge (t is ar an a) in t he B uddh a, D ham ma, an d San gh a, t hes e p lac es con tin ued to en joy p ublic p at ro n ag e at a pop u lar l ev el, as the ac cep tan ce o f terres tr ial n on -h um an beings s uch as devat as [35] and yak kh as [36] d id n ot v io lat e t he b elief s ystem of B uddh is m . T her efo re am on g t he B uddh is ts t h er e i s a r everen tial at tit u de t ow ar ds s pec ial ly l on g-s tan din g g ig an tic t rees . They ar e van aspat i in Pal i, m ean in g “l ord s o f t he fo res ts .” [37] As huge t rees such as the i ro n w ood , th e s ala, an d t he fi g ar e al so r ec og n iz ed as the B od h i t rees of fo rm er B uddh as , the defer ential at tit u de t ow ar ds t rees is fu rth er str en gth en ed. [38] It i s w ell k now n t hat the ficu s r el ig io sa i s h eld as an objec t o f g reat ven eratio n in t he B uddh is t w orld t od ay as the tr ee u nder w hic h t he B uddh a at tai ned En lig h ten men t. T h e c on str u ctio n o f p arks an d p leas ure g ro ves fo r p ublic u se i s c on sid er ed a g reat m er it o rio u s d eed . [39] Sak ka t he l ord o f g od s i s s ai d t o h ave r eac hed his s tat us as a r esult o f s ocial ser vic es such as the c on str u ctio n o f p arks, p leas ure g ro ves , p on ds, w ells , an d ro ad s. [40] T h e o pen air, n atural h ab it at s an d fo res t t rees hav e a s pec ial fas cin at io n fo r t he Eas ter n min d as sym bols o f s pir it u al fr eed om . T he h om e l ife i s r eg arded as a fet ter (sam bad ha) th at keep s m an in b on dag e an d m is er y. R enunciat io n is l ik e t he o pen air (ab bh okas a), nat ure u nham per ed by m an’s ac tiv it y . [41] T he c hief ev ents i n t he l ife o f the B uddh a t oo to ok p lac e i n t he o pen air. H e w as born in a p ark at the fo ot o f a t ree i n K ap ilav atth u; h e attai ned En lig h ten men t i n t he o pen air at the fo ot o f t he B od h i t ree i n B od h gay a; h e in au gu rat ed his m is sio n ar y ac tiv it y in t he o pen air i n t he s ala g ro ve o f th e M alas in Pav a. Th e B uddh a’s con stan t ad vic e t o h is d is cip les al so w as to r es ort t o n at ural h ab it at s s uch as fo res t g ro ves an d g lad es. T her e, u ndis tu rb ed by h um an ac tiv it y , t hey cou ld z eal ou sly en gag e t hem sel ves in m edit at io n . [42] A ttit u de t o w ard s P o llu tio n En vir o n m en tal p ollu tio n h as as su m ed such v as t p ro p ortio n s t od ay that m an has been forc ed to r ec og n iz e t he p res en ce o f an ecolo g ic al cris is . H e c an no l on ger turn a b lin d ey e to t he s it u at io n as he i s al read y t hre at en ed wit h n ew pollu tio n -r elat ed dis eas es. Po llu tio n to t his ex ten t w as unhear d o f d urin g t he t im e o f the B uddh a. B ut t her e i s s uffi cien t evid en ce i n t he Pal i c an on t o g iv e u s i n sig h t i n to t he B uddh is t at tit u de t ow ar ds t he pollu tio n p ro b lem . Sev eral Vi nay a r ules pro h ib it m on ks fr om p ollu tin g g reen gras s an d wat er w it h s al iv a, u rin e, an d fec es. [43] Thes e w ere t he c om mon ag ents o f pollu tio n k now n du rin g t he B uddh a’s day an d r ules w ere p ro m ulg at ed ag ainst c au sin g s uch p ollu tio n . Cl ean lin es s w as hig h ly c om men ded by t he B uddh is ts b oth in t he p erso n an d i n t he en vir o n m en t. T hey were m uch c on cer ned ab ou t k eep in g w ater clean , be it i n t he r iv er , pon d, o r w ell. T hes e s ou rc es of w ater w ere fo r p ublic u se an d eac h in div id u al h ad to u se 6/7/2020 The Buddhist Attitude Towards Nature https://www.accesstoinsight.or g/lib/authors/desilva/attitude.html 7/13 th em wit h p ro p er public -s pir it ed cau tio n s o t hat oth er s aft er him cou ld u se t hem wit h t he sam e degree o f clean lin es s. R ules reg ardin g t he c lean lin es s o f g reen gras s w ere p ro m pted b y et hic al an d aes th et ic c on sid er atio n s. M oreo ver , g ras s i s fo od fo r m ost an im als an d i t i s m an ‘s d uty t o r efr ain fr om p ollu tin g i t b y h is ac tiv it ies . Nois e i s t od ay rec og n iz ed as a s erio u s p er so n al an d en vir o n m en tal p ollu tan t t ro u blin g ev eryo n e t o s om e ex ten t. I t c au ses deafn ess, s tr es s, an d i rrit at io n , b reed s r es en tm en t, s ap s en ergy, an d i n ev it ab ly l ow er s effi cien cy . [44] T he B uddh a’s attit u de t o n ois e i s v er y clear from the Pal i c an on . H e w as crit ic al o f n ois e an d d id n ot h es it at e t o v oic e h is s ter n dis ap pro val w hen ever occas io n ar ose. [45] O nce h e ord er ed a g ro u p o f m on ks t o l eav e the m on as ter y fo r n ois y b eh avio r. [46] H e en joyed solit u de an d s ilen ce i mm en sel y an d s poke i n prai se o f silen ce as it i s m ost ap pro p riat e fo r m ental cult u re. N ois e i s d es crib ed as a t horn to o ne en gag ed in t he fi rs t s tep of m edit at io n , [47] b ut t her eaft er nois e c eas es to b e a dis tu rb an ce as the m edit at or p as ses bey on d t he p ossib ilit y o f b eing d is tu rb ed by s ou nd. Th e B uddh a an d h is d is cip les rev eled i n t he s ilen t s olit ar y n at ural h ab it at s u nen cu m ber ed by h um an ac tiv it y . Ev en in t he c hoic e o f m on as ter ies the p res en ce o f undis tu rb ed silen ce w as an im portan t q ual it y t hey looked fo r. [48] Si len ce i nvig orat es those w ho ar e p ure at h ear t an d r ai ses thei r effi cien cy fo r m ed it at io n . B ut s ilen ce o ver aw es those w ho ar e im pu re w it h ign ob le i mpu ls es of g re ed , h atred , an d d elusio n . T he B hayab her ava Su tta b eau tifu lly i llu str at es how ev en the ru stle o f leav es by a fal lin g t w ig i n t he fo res t s en ds tr em ors t hro u gh an im pu re h ear t. [49] T his m ay per hap s ac co u nt fo r t he p res en t c raz e fo r co n stan t au dit o ry s tim ulat io n w it h t ran sis to rs an d c as set tes . T he m oral im pu rit y c au sed b y g reed , av aric e, ac qu is it iv e i nstin cts , an d ag gres sio n h as ren der ed m an so t im id t hat he can not b ear silen ce w hic h lay s b ar e t he r eal it y o f s elf-aw aren ess. H e ther efo re p refer s t o dro w n h im sel f i n lou d m usic . U nlik e c las sic al m usic , w hic h t en ds t o s ooth e n erves an d in du ce r elax atio n , r ock m usic ex cit es the s enses . Co nstan t ex posu re t o i t ac tu al ly r en der s man in cap able o f relax atio n an d s ou nd s leep wit h ou t t ran qu iliz er s. As to t he q ues tio n o f t he B uddh is t a ttit u de t o m usic , i t i s r ec ord ed that the B uddh a h as sp oken quit e ap prec iat iv el y o f m usic o n o ne o ccas io n . [50] Wh en Pañ cas ik h a t he d iv in e m usic ian san g a s on g w hile p lay in g t he l ute i n fr on t o f t he B uddh a, t he B uddh a p rai sed his m usic al ab ilit y s ay in g t hat the i nstr u m en tal m usic b len ded well w it h h is s on g. Ag ain, t he rem ark o f an Arahant t hat the jo y o f s eei ng t he r eal nat ure o f thin gs i s far more ex qu is it e t h an orc h es tr al m usic [51] s how s t he r ecog n it io n t hat m usic affo rd s a c ertai n am ou nt o f pleas ure ev en if i t i s i n fer io r t o h ig h er kin ds o f p leas ure. B ut i t i s s tr es sed that the ear is a p ow er ful s en so ry c han nel thro u gh w hic h m an get s ad dic ted to s en se p leas ures . T her efo re, to d is su ad e m on ks fr om g et tin g ad dic ted to m elod io u s s ou nds, t he m on as tic d is cip lin e des crib es m usic as a l ament. [52] T h e p sy ch olo g ic al trai nin g o f t he m on ks i s s o ad van ced that they ar e ex pec ted to c ult iv at e a t aste n ot o nly fo r ex ter nal silen ce , b ut fo r i n ner silen ce o f speec h, d esir e, an d t hou gh t as w ell. T he s ub-v ocal speec h, t he i nner chat ter that goes on c on stan tly w it h in u s i n o ur w ak in g l ife i s ex pec ted to b e s ilen ced thro u gh m edit at io n . [53] T he s age w ho s ucceed ed in qu el lin g t his i n ner speec h c om plet ely i s d es crib ed as a muni, a s ilen t o ne. [54] H is i n ner silen ce i s m aintai ned ev en when he s peak s! It i s n ot i n ap pro p riat e t o p ay pas sin g n otic e t o t he B uddh is t at tit u de t o s peec h as well. M od er atio n in s peec h is c on sid er ed a v ir tu e, as one c an av oid fo ur u nw holes om e v ocal ac tiv it ies ther eb y, n am ely, fal seh ood , s lan der , h arsh s peec h, an d fr iv o lo u s t al k. I n its p osit iv e as pec t m od er atio n in s peec h p av es the p ath t o s elf-aw aren ess. B uddh is m c o m men ds s peak in g at the ap pro p riat e t im e, s peak in g t he t ru th , s peak in g g en tly , sp eak in g w hat is u sefu l, an d s peak in g o ut o f l ovin g-k in dn es s; t he o pposit e m od es of 6/7/2020 The Buddhist Attitude Towards Nature https://www.accesstoinsight.or g/lib/authors/desilva/attitude.html 8/13 sp eec h ar e c on dem ned . [55] The B uddh a’s gen eral ad vic e t o t he m on ks r eg ardin g s peec h is to b e en gag ed in d is cu ssin g t he D ham ma o r m aintai n n ob le s ilen ce. [56] T he s ilen ce t hat rei gn ed in v as t c on greg atio n s o f m on ks d urin g t he B uddh a’s day was in deed a s urp ris e ev en to t he k in gs o f t he t im e. [57] Si len ce i s s er en e an d n ob le as it i s c o n du civ e t o t he sp ir it u al p ro g res s o f t hose w ho ar e pu re at hear t. Ev en Buddh is t l ay men were r eputed to h av e ap prec iat ed quiet ude an d s ilen ce. Pañ can gik a T h ap ati c an be c it ed as a c on sp ic u ou s ex am ple. [58] O nce M ahanam a the Sak yan co m plai ned to t he B uddh a t hat he i s d is tu rb ed by t he h ustle o f the b usy c it y o f Kap ilav atth u. H e ex plai ned that he ex per ien ces cal m ser en it y w hen he v is it s t he B uddh a in t he q uiet sal ubrio u s s urro u ndin gs o f t he m on as ter y an d h is p eac e of m in d g et s dis tu rb ed when he g oes to t he c it y . [59] T hou gh n ois e t o t he ex ten t o f b eing a p ollu tan t cau sin g h eal th h az ards w as not k now n d urin g t he B uddh a’s day , w e h ave ad du ced en ou gh m at er ial fr om the Pal i c an on t o i llu str at e t he B uddh a’s attit u de t o t he p ro b lem . Quiet ude i s much ap prec iat ed as spir it u al ly r ew ardin g, w hile n ois e c on dem ned as a p erso n al an d so cial n uis an ce. N atu re a s B ea u tif u l Th e B uddh a an d h is d is cip les reg arded nat ural b eau ty as a s ou rc e o f great joy an d aes th et ic s at is fac tio n . T he s aints w ho p urg ed them sel ves of s en su ou s w orld ly p leas ures res pon ded to n at ural b eau ty w it h a d etac hed sen se o f ap prec iat io n . T he av erag e p oet lo oks at nat ure an d d er iv es in sp ir at io n m ostly b y t he s entim en ts i t ev okes in h is o wn hear t; h e b ecom es em otio n al ly i n vo lv ed wit h n at ure. F or i n stan ce, h e may com par e t he su n’s ray s p as sin g o ver the m ou nta in t op s t o t he b lu sh o n a s ensit iv e fac e, he may see a tear in a d ew dro p , t he l ip s o f h is b eloved in a r ose p etal, et c. B ut t he ap prec iat io n o f t he sai nt i s q uit e d iffer ent. H e ap prec iat es nat ure’s beau ty fo r i ts o wn s ak e an d d er iv es jo y unsu llied by s en su ou s as so ciat io n s an d s elf-p ro jec ted ideas . The s im ple s pon tan eous ap prec iat io n o f n ature’s ex qu is it e b eau ty i s ex pres sed by t he El der M ah akassap a i n t he fo llo w in g w ord s: [60] T h ose u plan d g lad es delig h tfu l t o t he s ou l, Wh ere t he K averi s pread s i ts w ild er in g w reat hs, Wh ere s ou nd t he t ru m pet -calls o f e lep han ts : T h ose ar e the h ills w her e m y s ou l d elig h ts . T h ose r ock y h eigh ts w it h h ue o f dark b lu e c lo u ds Wh ere l ies em bossed m any a s hin in g l ak e Of c ry stal -c lear , cool w ater s, an d w hose s lo p es Th e ‘h erds o f I ndra’ c over an d b ed eck: T h ose ar e the h ills w her ein m y s ou l d elig h ts . F ai r u plan ds r ai n-r efr eshed , an d r es on an t Wi th c res ted creat ures ‘ c ries an tip h on al , Lo ne h eigh ts w her e s ilen t R is h is o ft r es ort: T h ose ar e the h ills w her ein m y s ou l d elig h ts . Ag ain t he p oem of K aluday i, i nvit in g t he B uddh a t o v is it K ap ilav atth u, c on tai ns a b eautifu l des crip tio n o f s prin g: [61] 6/7/2020 The Buddhist Attitude Towards Nature https://www.accesstoinsight.or g/lib/authors/desilva/attitude.html 9/13 Now c rim so n g lo w the t rees , dear Lord , an d c as t Th ei r an cien t fo liag e in q ues t o f fr uit , Li ke c res ts o f fl am e they shin e i rrad ian t An d r ic h in h op e, g reat Hero, i s t he h ou r. Ver du re an d b lo sso m -tim e i n ev ery t r ee Wh erev er w e l ook d elig h tfu l t o t he e ye, An d ev ery q uar ter breat hin g fr ag ran t ai rs , Wh ile p etals fal lin g, y ear nin g c om es fr uit : I t i s t im e, O Hero, t hat w e s et out h en ce. T h e l on g p oem of T alap uta i s a fas cin at in g s olilo q u y. [62] H is r el ig io u s as pir at io n s ar e beau tifu lly b len ded wit h a p ro fo und k now led ge o f the t eac hin gs o f t he B uddh a ag ainst t he bac kg ro u nd o f a s ylv an res ort. M any m ore p oem s c ou ld b e c it ed fo r s ai ntly ap prec iat io n o f nat ure, b ut i t i s n ot n ec essar y t o b urd en the es say wit h an y m ore q uotat io n s. Su ffice i t t o kn ow that the s aints , t oo, w ere s ensit iv e t o t he b eau ties an d h ar mon y o f n ature an d t hat th ei r ap prec iat io n is c olo red by s pon tan eity , s im plic it y , an d a n on -s en su ou s s pir it u al it y . C on clu sio n In t he m od er n ag e m an has bec om e al ien ated from h im sel f an d n at ure. Wh en scien ce s tar ted open in g n ew vis tas of k now led ge r eveal in g t he s ecret s o f n ature o ne b y o ne, m an grad ual ly l ost fai th in t hei stic r el ig io n s. Co nseq uen tly , h e d evelop ed scan ty r es pec t fo r moral an d s pir it u al v alues as well. W it h t he ad ven t o f t he I ndu str ial R ev olu tio n an d t he ac qu is it io n o f w ealth b y m echan ic al ex plo it at io n o f n atural res ou rc es , m an has bec om e m ore an d m ore m ater ial is tic i n h is a ttit u des an d v alues . T he p urs u it o f s en se p leas ures an d t he ac qu is it io n o f p osses sio n s h av e b ecom e en ds i n t hem sel ves . M an’s s en se fac ult ies d om in at e h im to an unrel en tin g d eg ree an d m an has bec om e a s lav e t o h is i n sat iab le p as sio n s. (I ncid en tal ly t he s ense fac ult ies ar e in Pal i i n driyas o r l ord s, b ecau se t hey co n tr o l m an unles s h e i s s uffi cien tly v ig ilan t t o b ec om e t hei r m aster .) T hus m an has bec om e al ien ated from h im sel f as he ab andon ed him sel f t o t he i nflu en ce o f sen se p leas ures an d ac qu is it iv e i nstin cts . In h is g reed for m ore an d m ore p oss es sio n s h e h as ad op ted a v io len t an d ag gres siv e at tit u de t ow ar ds n at ure. F org et tin g t hat he i s a p art an d p ar cel o f n ature, h e ex plo it s i t w it h u nres tr ai ned greed , thus al ien atin g h im sel f fr om n at ure as well. T he n et res ult i s t he det er io rat io n o f m an’s p hysic al an d m en tal h eal th o n t he o ne h and, an d t he r apid d ep let io n o f n on -r ep len is h ab le n atural res ou rc es an d en vir o n m en tal p ollu tio n o n t he o th er . Th es e r esult s r em in d u s o f t he B uddh is t t eac hin gs i n t he s uttas dis cu ssed ab ove, w hic h m aintai n t hat the m oral d eg en eratio n o f m an lead s t o t he d ecreas e of his l ife-s pan an d th e d eplet io n o f n atural res ou rc es . Moral d eg en eratio n is a d ou ble-ed ged weap on , i t ex ercis es ad ver se effec ts o n m an’s psy ch o-p hysic al w ell b eing as well as on n at ure. Al read y k iller dis eas es such as hear t ailm en ts , c ancer , d iab etes , AI DS, et c., ar e clai m in g v ic tim s o n an unprec ed en ted scal e. I n th e fi nal an alysis t hes e c an all b e t rac ed to m an’s m oral d et er io rat io n . D ep let io n o f v ast res ou rc es of fo ssil fu els an d fo res ts h as giv en ris e t o a v ery s ev ere en ergy c ris is . I t c an not b e em ph as iz ed too s tr o n gly t hat such r ap id d ep let io n o f n on -r en ew able n atural res ou rc es w it h in les s t han tw o c en tu ries , an in fin it es im al fr actio n o f t he m illio n s o f y ear s t ak en fo r th em to fo rm , i s d ue t o m od er n m an ‘s in ord in at e g reed and ac qu is it iv en ess. A n um ber of sim ple an cien t s ociet ies had ad van ced tec hnolo g ic al skills , as is ev id en t b y t hei r v as t so p h is tic at ed irrig at io n s ch em es des ig n ed to feed the fu ndam ental n eed s o f s everal 6/7/2020 The Buddhist Attitude Towards Nature https://www.accesstoinsight.or g/lib/authors/desilva/attitude.html 10/13 millio n s. Yet they surv iv ed in s om e co u ntr ies over 2000 y ear s w it h ou t s uch p ro b lem s as en vir o n m en tal p ollu tio n an d d ep let io n o f n atural res ou rc es . T his w as no d ou bt d ue t o t o val id it y o f t he p hilo so p h y w hic h in sp ir ed an d fo rm ed the b asis o f t hes e c iv iliz at io n s. In t he p res en t ec ocris is m an has to l ook fo r r ad ic al solu tio n s. “Po llu tio n c an not b e d ealt wit h in t he l on g t er m on a r emedial o r c osm et ic b as is o r b y t ac klin g s ym pto m s: al l meas ures shou ld d eal wit h b as ic c au ses . T hes e ar e deter min ed lar gel y b y o ur v alues , prio rit ies , an d c hoic es .” [63] M an m ust r eap prai se h is v alue s ystem . The m ater ial is m that has guid ed his l ifes ty le h as lan ded him in v er y s ev ere p ro b lem s. B uddh is m teac hes that m in d i s t he fo rer unner of al l t hin gs, m in d i s s uprem e. I f one ac ts w it h an im pu re m in d, i .e. a m in d s ullied wit h g reed , hatred an d d elusio n , s uffer in g i s t he i nev it ab le r esult . I f o ne ac ts w it h a p ure m in d, i .e. w it h t he o pposit e q ual it ies of c on ten tm en t, c om pas sio n , an d wis d om , h appin es s w ill fo llo w lik e a s had ow . [64] M an has to u nder stan d t hat pollu tio n in th e en vir o n m en t h as been cau sed bec au se t her e h as been psy ch olo g ic al p ollu tio n w it h in h im sel f. I f he w ants a c lean envir o n m en t h e h as to ad op t a l ifes ty le t hat sprin gs fr om a m oral an d s pir it u al d im en sio n . B uddh is m offer s m an a s im ple m od er ate l ifes ty le es ch ew in g b oth ex tr em es of s elf- dep riv at io n an d s elf-i ndu lg en ce. Sat is fac tio n o f b asic h um an nec essit ies , r ed uctio n o f wan ts t o t he m in im um , fr ugal it y , an d c on ten tm en t ar e its i m portan t c har ac ter is tic s. Eac h man has to o rd er his l ife o n n orm al p rin cip les , ex ercis e s elf-c on tr o l i n t he en joym en t o f th e s enses , d is ch ar ge h is d uties in h is v ar io u s s ocial roles , an d c on du ct h im sel f w it h w is d om an d s elf-aw aren ess i n al l ac tiv it ies . I t i s o nly w hen eac h m an ad op ts a s im ple m od er ate l ifes ty le t hat m ankin d as a w hole w ill s to p p ollu tin g t he en vir o n m en t. T his s eem s t o b e t he o nly w ay of o ver co m in g t he p res en t ec ocris is an d t he p ro b lem of alien atio n . Wi th s uch a l ifes ty le, m an w ill ad op t a n on -ex plo it at iv e, n on -ag gres siv e, g entle at tit u de t ow ar ds n at ure. H e can then liv e i n h ar mon y w it h n at ure, u tiliz in g i ts r es ou rc es fo r t he s atis fac tio n o f h is b as ic n eed s. T he B uddh is t ad mon it io n is t o u tiliz e n ature i n t he sam e w ay as a b ee c ollec ts p ollen from the fl ow er , n eith er pollu tin g i ts b eau ty n or d ep let in g i ts fr ag ran ce. J ust as the bee m anufac tu res hon ey out o f p ollen , s o m an shou ld b e ab le t o fi nd h ap pin es s an d fu lfi llm en t i n life w it h ou t h ar min g t he n atural w orld i n w hic h h e l iv es . N ote s All Pal i t ex ts r efer red to ar e ed it io n s o f t he Pal i T ex t So ciet y, Lo ndon . Ab brev iat io n s u sed ar e as follo w s: A An gu ttar a N ik ay a D Dig h a N ik ay a Dh Dham map ada Dh.A D ham map ada At th ak atha J Jat ak a M Majjh im a N ik ay a S Sam yu tta N ik ay a Sn Su tta-n ip at a Th ag Th er ag atha Vi n Vinay a Pi tak a 6/7/2020 The Buddhist Attitude Towards Nature https://www.accesstoinsight.or g/lib/authors/desilva/attitude.html 11/13 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1 0 . 11 . 12 . 13 . 14 . 15 . 16 . 17 . 18 . 19 . 20 . 21 . 22 . 23 . 24 . 25 . 26 . 27 . 28 . 29 . 30 . 31 . 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 36 . 37 . 38 . 39 . 40 . 41 . 42 . A. I V, 1 00. S. I V, 5 2. A. I V, 1 00. D . I II, 8 0. D . I II, 7 1. A. I , 160. At th as alin i, 8 54. D h.A I II, 8 54. S. I , 39. Q uoted in Van ce Pac kar d, Th e W aste M akers (Lo ndon 1 961), p . 195. Cp . J. I, 4 75 f. D h. v . 2 04. A. I V, 2 , 220, 2 29. D h.A. I , 20 ff. D h.A. I II, 1 29 ff. Vi n. I I, 2 91. A. I V, 2 83. D . I II, 1 88. D . I , 4 . A. I II, 2 08. Vi n. I , 1 37. Vi n. I V, 1 25. Vi n. I II, 4 2. Vi n. I V, 1 25. Sn . vv. 1 43-1 52. J. I , 1 91. D h.A. I , 58 ff. Vi n. I I, 1 94 f. M . I , 3 87 f. A. I , 161. J. I I, 4 23. Pet avatth u I I, 9 , 3. Vin. I V, 3 4. D h. v . 1 88. S. I , 1-45. S. I , 206-2 15. S. I V, 3 02; D h.A. I , 3 D. I I, 4 S. I , 33. J. I , 1 99 f. D . I , 6 3. M . I , 1 18; S. I V, 373 6/7/2020 The Buddhist Attitude Towards Nature https://www.accesstoinsight.or g/lib/authors/desilva/attitude.html 12/13 43 . 44 . 45 . 46 . 47 . 48 . 49 . 50 . 51 . 52 . 53 . 54 . 55 . 56 . 57 . 58 . 59 . 60 . 61 . 62 . 63 . 64 . Vi n. I V, 2 05-2 06. R ob er t Ar vill, M an an d En viro n m en t (Pen gu in B ooks, 1 978), p . 118. A. I II, 3 1. M . I , 4 57. A. V, 1 35. A. V, 1 5. M . I , 1 6-2 4. D . I I, 2 67. Th ag . v . 3 98. A. I , 261. S. I V, 2 17, 2 93. Sn . vv. 2 07-2 21; A. I , 273. M . I , 1 26. M . I , 1 61. M . I I, 1 22; D . I, 5 0. M . I I, 2 3. S. V, 3 69. Th ag . v v. 1 062-1 071. Th ag . v v. 5 27-5 29. Th ag . v v. 1 091-1 145. Ar vill, M an an d En viro n m en t, p . 1 70. D h. v v. 1 , 2 Pu blis h er’s n ote T h e B uddh is t Pu blic at io n So ciet y is an appro ved char it y d ed ic at ed to m akin g k now n t he T eac hin g o f t he B uddh a, w hic h h as a v it al m essag e fo r p eo ple o f al l c reed s. F o u nded in 1 958, t he B PS h as publis h ed a w id e v ariet y o f b ooks an d b ooklet s c over in g a g reat ran ge o f to p ic s. I ts p ublic at io n s i n clu de ac cu rat e an notat ed tran slat io n s o f t he B uddh a’s dis co u rs es , s tan dar d refer ence w ork s, as well as orig in al con tem porar y ex posit io n s o f B uddh is t t hou gh t an d p rac tic e. T hes e work s p res en t B uddh is m as it t ru ly i s — a d yn am ic fo rc e w hic h h as in flu en ced rec ep tiv e m in ds fo r t he p ast 2500 y ear s an d i s s till as rel ev an t t od ay as it w as w hen it fi rs t ar ose. B uddh is t Pu blic at io n So ciet y P.O . Box 6 1 54, San gh ar aja M awatha K an dy, Sr i Lan ka © 1987 Li ly d e Si lv a. Yo u m ay cop y, r efo rm at , r ep rin t, r ep ublis h , an d r ed is tr ib u te t his w ork i n an y m ediu m w hat so ev er, p ro vid ed that : (1 ) you o nly m ake s uch c op ies , et c. av ailab le fr ee o f char ge an d, i n t he c ase o f rep rin tin g, o nly i n q uan tit ies of n o m ore t han 50 c op ies ; (2 ) you c lear ly i n dic at e t hat an y d er iv at iv es of t his w ork (i nclu din g t ran slat io n s) ar e deriv ed from this s ou rc e d ocu m en t; an d (3 ) you in clu de t he fu ll t ex t o f t his l ic en se i n an y c op ies or d er iv at iv es of t his w ork . O th er wis e, al l r ig h ts r es erved . D ocu m en ts l in ked from this p ag e m ay be su bjec t t o o th er res tr ic tio n s. Ex cer pted from Buddh is t Per sp ec tives on t he Ec ocris is (W heel Pu blic at io n N o. 3 46), ed it ed by K las s San del l (K andy: B uddh is t Pu blic at io n So ciet y, 1 987). T ran scrib ed from a fi le p ro vid ed by t he B PS, w it h m in or r ev is io n s i n ac co rd an ce w it h t he AT I s ty le s heet . Las t r ev is ed fo r Ac ces s t o I nsig h t o n 3 0 Novem ber 2013. 6/7/2020 The Buddhist Attitude Towards Nature https://www.accesstoinsight.or g/lib/authors/desilva/attitude.html 13/13 How to cit e this d ocu men t (a s ugges ted sty le): “T he B uddh is t At tit u de T ow ar ds N ature”, b y Li ly d e Si lv a. A cces s t o I nsig h t (B CBS Ed it io n ) , 3 0 N ovem ber 2013, http ://w ww.ac ces sto in sig h t.o rg /l ib /au th ors /d es ilv a/at tit u de.h tm l . Help | Si te m ap | Ab ou t | C on ta ct | T erm s o f u se Ac ce ss t o I n sig h t is o w ned a n d m an ag ed b y t h e B arre C en te r fo r B uddh is t St udie s




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