Essay Question #7:  Identify and describe the three steps that the team should follow in order to define project scope and create a project scope statement.
The assignment is to answer the question provided above in essay form. This is to be in narrative form. Bullet points should not to be used. The paper should be at least 1.5 – 2 pages in length, Times New Roman 12-pt font, double-spaced, 1 inch margins and utilizing at least one outside scholarly or professional source related to project management. This does not mean blogs or websites. This source should be a published article in a scholarly journal (Journal of Project Management)  or a professional journal (such as PMI’s Project Management Journal). This source should provide substance and not just be mentioned briefly to fulfill this criteria. The journal article should not replace or provide information already in the textbook. It should be used to provide greater detail through examples, research, case studies, etc.CONTEMPORARY PROJECT MANAGEMENT, 4E
Timothy J. Kloppenborg
Vittal Anantatmula
Kathryn N. Wells
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1
Chapter 7
Scope Planning
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2
Chapter 7 Core Objectives:
• Describe the planning of scope management, collecting requirements, & defining scope
processes
• Create a requirements traceability matrix, project scope statement, & change request
form
• Describe a work breakdown structure (WBS) and why it is important
• Compare different methods of developing a WBS
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except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a
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Chapter 7 Technical Objective:
• Create a WBS, including work packages and a numbering system for
the code of accounts, both by hand and using MS Project
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Web Intelligence Solutions from Teradata
“An effective scope management approach fosters open communications and
sound decision making to ensure all parties get the business value expected
from the project”
Mike Van Horn, Teradata
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duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed
with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for
classroom use.
Scope Planning Processes
• Plan Scope Management




Collect project requirements
Define project scope
Create work breakdown structure (WBS)
Establish change control
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Flow of Scope Planning
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Plan Scope Management
Plan scope management – the process of developing a plan that includes the total scope of
what needs to be done and what is excluded from the project; implementation and
validation of the scope; and how to control deviations from the scope statement.
Total scope = product scope + project scope
Product scope – outputs the team will deliver to its customers
Project scope – the work needed to be performed in order to deliver the project’s outputs
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whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or
service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Collect Requirements
Make sure the project team is absolutely clear on the project objectives!
Requirement– a condition or capability needed by a user to solve a problem or achieve an
objective that satisfies a standard, specification, or any other formally-documented need.
Collect requirements – a systematic effort to understand and analyze stakeholder needs to
define and document these needs and requirements with a focus on meeting project
objectives.
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part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on
a password-protected website for classroom use.
Gather Stakeholder Input & Needs
• Use voice of the customer techniques (VOC)
• Ask questions
• Place yourself in the customer’s situation
• State customer desires in operational terms
Collecting requirements is same regardless
of type of project. Generally Agile documentation
lessscanned,
formal,
thus
allowing
for progressive elaboration
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be copied,
or duplicated,
in whole
or in
part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a
password-protected website for classroom use.
Gather Stakeholder Input & Needs
Common methods for obtaining & documenting requirements:
➢Meetings with Stakeholders
➢Interviews
➢Focus Groups
➢Questionnaires
➢Surveys
➢Observations
➢Prototypes
➢Industry Standards
➢Reference Documents
➢Market Analysis
➢Competitive Analysis
➢Client Requests
➢Standard Specifications
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part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a
password-protected website for classroom use.
Gather Stakeholder Input & Needs
Seek a high-level description:
What do we not understand about the feature?
What is the business reason for the feature?
What is the impact of not providing this feature?
What action items need to be accomplished if we do this?
What impact will this have on other features of the
project or elsewhere?
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part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a
password-protected website for classroom use.
Requirements Traceability Matrix
*See Exhibit 7.2
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whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or
service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Breakout Session!
Create a Requirements Matrix, similar to the one in Exhibit 7.2
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part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a
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Define Scope
Define scope – the process of translation stakeholder needs and requirements
into detailed specifications of the project outcomes & products
• Reasons to Define Scope
• How to Define Scope
• List deliverables and acceptance criteria
• Establish project boundaries
• Create a project work statement
• Defining Scope in Agile Projects
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Reasons to Define Scope
• All other planning is based on the project scope
• Needed to preventing scope creep
If we provide this, will
it solve your problem?
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part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a
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How to Define Scope
• List project deliverables
• Determine acceptance criteria
• Establish project boundaries
• In scope vs. Out of scope
• Understand constraints
• Create a Scope Definition
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or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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Scope Statement
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in whole
ororininpart,
except
for
use as permitted
in a license
distributed
withor otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom
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scanned, or duplicated,
in whole
part, except
for use
as permitted
in a license distributed
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product or service
use.
a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for
Breakout Session!
For a given project, list the following:
1. Intermediate deliverables
2. Final deliverables
3. Acceptance criteria
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whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or
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Defining Scope in Agile Projects
• At beginning of project, overall scope only identified at high level
• Backlog of possible work identified also
• Use smaller, frequent iterations to get feedback, as customer desires
evolve over time
• Customer representative (“owner”) prioritizes scope based on business
need, value, cost, & risk.
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whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or
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Defining Scope in Agile Projects
Acceptance tests
User stories
High level scope
Commit to work
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in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product
or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
• What is the WBS?




Why use a WBS?
WBS Formats
Work Packages
How to Construct a WBS
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duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license
distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use.
What is the WBS?
• Tool to progressively divide project deliverables into smaller pieces
• Identifies all deliverables
• A framework for further planning, execution, and control
What are the components of
this deliverable?
Define activity – a project planning process which identifies and determines
specific actions to develop and deliver the project outcomes, such as
products, services or results
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part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a
Why use a WBS?
• Ensures all parts of project are considered




Adds discipline and visibility to project planning
Basis for planning schedule, resources, cost, quality, & risk
Useful in determining where and why problems occur
Helpful in project communications
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whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or
service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
WBS Formats
• Indented outline
• Organizational chart
• Free format
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whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or
service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
WBS – Indented Outline Format
Useful when
typing WBS into
scheduling
software
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or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license
distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use.
WBS in Org Chart Format
• Familiar
• Easy to understand
• Flexible
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WBS in Free Format
• Completely flexible
• Especially useful
when project’s
structure is not
initially clear
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Work Packages
• Lowest level of WBS
• Basis for subsequent planning & control
Work activities are
defined
Schedule is
formed
Resources are
aligned
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Control features
are developed
Work Packages
Work package – deliverable at the lowest level of the WBS, for which cost and
duration can be
estimated
&Rights
managed
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Cengage Learning. All
Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted
in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Work Packages
State succinctly in very few words (use adjectives, not verbs!)
WBS component – “an entry in the WBS
that can be at any level.” PMBOK® Guide
WBS dictionary – document that provides detailed information
about every work package, including deliverable details; activity;
scheduling information; predecessor & successor activities;
person responsible; resources required; & risks.
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part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a
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Work Package Detail
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part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a
password-protected website for classroom use.
How to construct a WBS
• Include appropriate subject matter experts (SMEs)
• Use a top-down approach
• Consider WBS from a previous project as a starting point
• Use brainstorming
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whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or
service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Steps in WBS Construction
1.
Identify major deliverables
2. Decompose deliverables
3. Continue until deliverables are the right size
4. Review
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Identify Major Deliverables
• Begin with Scope Statement
• Organize in systematic manner such as by project phase
• Facilitates rolling wave planning—planning near term work in detail
and future work at a higher level
• Rolling wave planning → quick start
• Helps avoid:
• Analysis paralysis – never starting anything because the plan is not
complete
• Ready, fire, aim – not planning at all
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whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or
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WBS Organization Examples
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duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom
use.
Decompose Deliverables
• Brainstorm list of interim and final deliverables (use Post It® Notes)
• Assemble deliverables on large work space
• Organize deliverables into related groups
Decomposition – breaking down into smaller and smaller pieces
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part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise
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Continue Until Deliverables Are the Right Size
When to stop decomposing?
Judgment call…Ideally, work
packages are:
• Small enough to control
• Not so small as to micromanage
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in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
Review
• Ensure completeness
• Consider parent-child concept
• Have between 3 and 9 child elements for each parent
• Assign a unique name & number to each component
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in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Establish Change Control
• Projects are conducted in an atmosphere of uncertainty
• Plans must be made to ensure all potential changes are considered,
accepted or rejected, and that their impact is factored into revised plans
Change control system – a system of managing and controlling changes and
modifications to the project plan and project deliverables
Baseline – the approved project plan, mostly consisting of scope, schedule, & cost;
should not be altered without going through integrated change control system
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or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
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Establish Change Control
• Document potential changes to a project with a change request
• Every change to a project must be formally proposed
Change request – a written request or formal proposal to change any
project planning component, such as a document, project deliverable, or
the baseline (scope, cost, and time).
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duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with
a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for
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Change Request Form
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part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise
on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Using MS Project for Work Breakdown Structures (WBS)
• Set Up the WBS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Understand WBS definitions & displays.
Enter project deliverables & work package elements.
Create the outline of your WBS.
Insert a WBS code identification column.
Hide (or show) the desired amount of detail in WBS.
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or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
Step 1. Understand WBS displays and definitions
• Summary tasks are displayed:
• Tables as an outline
• Gantt view
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Step 2. Enter WBS
Elements (Tasks)
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part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a
Step 2. Enter WBS Elements (Tasks)
1. Click on Task Name field to select the row below where you
want the new row to be.
2. On Task tab, Insert group, click Insert Task.
3. In the Task Name field, enter the name of the added WBS
element.
4. Enter any additional task(s).
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for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected
website for classroom use.
Step 3. Create the outline of your (WBS)
1. Click Task Name field of the row to be indented.
2. On Task tab, Schedule group, click Indent Task.
3. To decrease an indent level with the Outdent control: On the
Task tab, Schedule group, click Outdent Task. Any lower-level
items will also be outdented.
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part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a
password-protected website for classroom use.
Step 4. Insert Row Number Column
• Project will automatically number summaries
• Right-click Task Name heading
• Insert – Column –WBS
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part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise
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Ready to Insert WBS Column
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use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website
for classroom use.
WBS Column Inserted
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Step 5. Hide (or Show) Underlying Detail
Select summary row whose detail
is to be hidden/displayed
Click on the Hide ( – ) subtasks
button or Show subtasks button (
+)
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Summary





Use scope planning to determine deliverables and acceptance criteria.
Organize scope into a work breakdown structure (WBS).
Decompose the project into smaller and smaller pieces.
Assign WBS components.
Create WBS by hand or use MS Project to create WBS.
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as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for
classroom use.
PMBOK Exams
• When in doubt, work backwards from your desired solution
• What would it take to make this project/product successful?
• Collect Requirements—get input from stakeholders, end-users, & SMEs
• Break down project deliverables into smaller and smaller pieces with a WBS
• Remember, these are things (nouns), not activities (verbs)
• Lowest level (work packages) should be small enough to monitor
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except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a
password-protected website for classroom use.
Work Breakdown Structure Template




PM IN ACTION
Management and Technical activities for banks in South Africa
First level decomposition is physical (“powerhouse,” “factory,” etc.)
Second level decompositions varied—based on function or product
Developed from a client’s (rather than the project team’s) perspective
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except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a
password-protected website for classroom use.
Casa de Paz Development Project
• The Promotion and Community Relations Working Group are creating a product
backlog
• They ask “what are the three to five most important things to be created?”
• For each, what details must be accomplished for it to be a minimum viable
product?
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or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or
otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

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