Read the Chapter 12 Mini-Case: A Change at the Top at Procter & Gamble: An Indication of How Much the CEO Matters?Respond to question 2: How Is it a good practice to rehire a former CEO who has retired? Please explain the potential advantages and disadvantages of doing so.407
Chapter 12: Strategic Leadership
KEY TERMS
balanced scorecard 404
determining strategic direction 396
external managerial labor market 392
heterogeneous top management team 389
human capital 398
internal managerial labor market 392
strategic leadership 384
social capital 399
strategic change 384
top management team 387
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What is strategic leadership? Why are top-level managers
considered to be important resources for an organization?
2. What is a top management team, and how does it affect a
firm’s performance and its abilities to innovate and design and
bring about effective strategic change?
3. What is the managerial succession process? How important are
the internal and external managerial labor markets to this process?
4. What is the effect of strategic leadership on determining the
firm’s strategic direction?
leverage the human capital and social capital to achieve a
competitive advantage?
6. What must strategic leaders do to develop and sustain an
effective organizational culture?
7. As a strategic leader, what actions could you take to establish
and emphasize ethical practices in your firm?
8. Why are strategic controls and financial controls important
aspects of strategic leadership and the firm’s strategic
management process?
5. How do strategic leaders effectively manage their firm’s
resource portfolio to exploit its core competencies and
Mini-Case
A Change at the Top at Procter & Gamble: An Indication of
How Much the CEO Matters?
A. G. Lafley joined Procter & Gamble (P&G) in 1977 as
brand assistant for Joy dishwashing liquid. From this
beginning, he worked his way through the firm’s laundry division, becoming highly visible due to a number
of successes including the launching of liquid Tide. A
string of continuing accomplishments throughout the
firm resulted in Lafley’s appointment as P&G’s CEO in
June 2000, a post he held until retiring in mid-2009.
Bob McDonald, who joined P&G in 1980, was Lafley’s
handpicked successor. McDonald took the top position
at P&G in July 2009, but resigned under pressure in May
2013. Lafley, revered by many, was asked to come out of
retirement and return to P&G as president, CEO, and
chair of the board of directors. Lafley said that when
contacted to return to P&G, he agreed immediately to do
so, committing to remain “as long as needed to improve
the company’s performance.” However, speculation is
that Lafley likely would not remain beyond three years.
What went wrong for McDonald, a long-time P&G
employee who seemed to know the firm well and who
received Lafley’s support? Not surprisingly, a number
of possibilities have been mentioned in response to this
question. Some concluded that, under McDonald’s leadership, P&G suffered from “poor execution globally,” an
outcome created in part by P&G’s seemingly ineffective
responses to aggressive competition in emerging markets. Other apparent problems were a failure to control
the firm’s costs and employees’ loss of confidence in
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
408
Part 3: Strategic Actions: Strategy Implementation
McDonald’s leadership. Still others argued that McDonald
did not fully understand the effects on U.S. consumers of
the recession in place when he took over, and that, during
that time period, P&G “was selling BMWs when cashtight consumers were looking for Kias.” The net result
of these types of problems included P&G “losing a step
to rivals like Unilever.” In turn, this caused investors to
become frustrated by “P&G’s inability to consistently
keep up with its rivals’ sales growth and share price gains.”
But why bring Lafley back? In a few words, because
of his previous success. Among other achievements
during his first stint as P&G’s main strategic leader
were building up the firm’s beauty business, acquiring
Gillette, expanding the firm’s presence in emerging
markets, and launching hit products such as Swiffer and
Febreze. An overall measure of P&G’s success during
Lafley’s initial tenure as CEO is the fact that the firm’s
shares increased 63 percent in value while the S&P fell
37 percent in value. Thus, multiple stakeholders, including investors and employees, may believe that Lafley can
return the firm to the “glory days” it experienced from
2000 to 2009.
Product innovations are a core concern and an area
receiving a significant amount of attention. Analysts
suggest that P&G needs to move beyond incremental
innovations, seeking to again create entirely new product categories as it did with Swiffer and Febreze. This
will be challenging, at least in the short run, given recent
declines in allocations to the firm’s research and development programs. These reductions have resulted in
a product pipeline focused mainly on “reformulating
rather than inventing.” Additionally, efforts are underway
to continue McDonald’s strong, recent commitments to
reduce the firm’s “bloated” cost structure and reenergize
the competitive actions it will take in global markets.
Restructuring P&G’s multiple brands and products
into four sectors, each of which will be headed by a president, is a major change Lafley is initiating. Currently,
the firm has two global business divisions—beauty and
grooming and household care. Final decisions about
the precise compositions of the four sectors were not
announced by mid-2013. Speculation, though, was
that each sector would be formed “to reflect synergies
between various businesses.” For example, one expectation was that paper-based products such as “Bounty
paper towels, Charmin toilet paper, Pampers diapers
and Always feminine care products” would be combined
to form a sector. Moreover, Lafley’s replacement was
expected to be selected from among the four presidents
who would be chosen to lead the new sectors.
Sources: D. Benoit, 2013, Critical P&G analysts still waiting on results,
Wall Street Journal, www.wsj.com, May 24; D. Benoit, 2013, Procter &
Gamble gets an upgrade, Wall Street Journal, www.wsj.com, May 24;
J. Bogaisky, 2013, Congrats, Bill Ackman: Bob McDonald out at P&G
A. G. Lafley returning as CEO, Forbes, www.forbes.com, May 23; E. Byron &
J. S. Lublin, 2013, Embattled P&G chief replaced by old boss, Wall Street
Journal, www.wsj.com, May 23; L. Coleman-Lochner & C. Hymowitz, 2013,
Lafley’s CEO encore at P&G puts rock star legacy at risk: Retail, Bloomberg,
Bloomberg
www.bloomberg.com, May 28; J. S. Lublin & S. Ng, 2013, P&G lines up
executives in race for CEO Lafley’s successor, Wall Street Journal, www.
wsj.com, May 30; J. Ritchie, 2013, P&G’s hiring of Lafley may buy time for
innovation, Business Courier, www.bizjournals.com/cincinnati, May 31.
Case Discussion Questions
1. What makes a CEO’s job so complex? Use the mini-case to provide examples that help support your answer.
2. Is it a good practice to rehire a former CEO who has retired?
Please explain the potential advantages and disadvantages of
doing so.
3. What should P&G do to replace Lafley when he retires for a
second time? What actions should they take to prepare for the
succession?
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
409
Chapter 12: Strategic Leadership
N OT E S
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
M. C. Diaz-Fernandez, M. R. GonzalesRodriguez, & B. Simonetti, 2015, Top
Management team’s intellectual
capital and firm performance European
Management Journal
Journal, in press;
D. C. Hambrick & T. J. Quigley, 2014,
Toward more accurate contextualization
of the CEO effect on firm performance,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 35: 473–491;
A. Mackey, 2008, The effect of CEOs on
firm performance, Strategic Management
Journal, 29: 1357–1367.
Journal
V. Govindarajan, 2012, The timeless
strategic value of unrealistic goals, HBR
Blog Network
Network, www.hbr.org, October 22.
D. Martin, 2014, Thinking about thinking,
Journal of Business Strategy
Strategy, 35(5): 49–54;
B.-J. Moon, 2013, Antecedents and
outcomes of strategic thinking, Journal of
Business Research, 66: 1698–1708; M. A. Hitt,
K. T. Haynes, & R. Serpa, 2010, Strategic
leadership for the 21st century, Business
Horizons, 53: 437–444; R. D. Ireland &
M. A. Hitt, 2005, Achieving and maintaining
strategic competitiveness in the 21st
century: The role of strategic leadership,
Academy of Management Executive, 19: 63–77.
D. Cooper, P. C. Patel, & S. M. B, Thatcher,
2014, It depends: Environmental
context and the effects of faultlines on
top management team performance,
Organization Science, 25: 633–652.
T. von den Driesch, M. E. S. da Costa,
T. C. Flatten, & M. Brettel, 2015, How CEO
experience, personality, and network
affect firms’ dynamic capabilities, European
Management Journal
Journal, in press: M. T. Hansen,
H. Ibarra, & U. Peyer, 2013, The bestperforming CEOs in the world, Harvard
Business Review
Review, 91(1): 81–95.
M. A. Hitt, C. Miller, & A. Colella, 2015,
Organizational Behavior
Behavior, 4th ed., Hoboken,
NJ: John Wiley & Sons; D. Frank & T. Obloj,
2014, Firm-specific human capital,
organizational incentives, and agency
costs: Evidence from retail banking,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 35: 1279–
1301; B. A. Campbell, R. Coff, & D. Kryscynski,
2012, Rethinking sustained competitive
advantage from human capital, Academy of
Management Review
Review, 37: 376–395.
M. A. Axtle-Ortiz, 2013, Perceiving the value
of intangible assets in context, Journal of
Business Research, 56: 417–424.
P. J. H. Schoemaker, S. Krupp, & S. Howland,
2013, Strategic leadership: The essential
skills, Harvard Business Review
Review, 91(1-2):
131–134.
C. Chadwick, J. F. Super, & K. Kwon, 2015,
Resource orchestration in Practice: CEO
emphasis on shrm, commitment-based hr
systems and firm performance, Strategic
Management Journal
Journal, 36: 360–376; J. J. Sosik,
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
W. A. Gentry, & J. U. Chun, 2012, The
value of virtue in the upper echelons: A
multisource examination of executive
character strengths and performance,
Leadership Quarterly
Quarterly, 23: 367–382.
D. M. Cable, F. Gino, & B. R. Staats, 2013,
Breaking them in or eliciting their
best? Reframing socialization and
newcomers’ authentic self-expression,
Administrative Science Quarterly
Quarterly, 58:
1–36; T. Hulzschenreuter, I. Kleindienst, &
C. Greger, 2012, How new leaders affect
strategic change following a succession
event: A critical review of the literature, The
Leadership Quarterly
Quarterly, 23: 729–755.
C. Crossland, J. Zyung, N. J. Hiller, &
D. C. Hambrick, 2014, CEO career variety:
Effects on firm-level strategic and social
novelty, Academy of Management Journal
Journal,
57: 652–674.
C. Alessi, 2015, ThyssenKrup swings to
profit on cost-cutting, weaker euro, Wall
Street Journal
Journal, www.wsj.com, February 13;
S. Reed, 2014, ThyssenKrup post first annual
profit in 3 years, New York Times, www.
nytimes.com, November 20; T. Andresen,
2013, Thyssen woes tarnish 99-year-old
steel baron’s legacy, Bloomberg, www.
bloomberg.com, May 21; J. Hromadko, 2013,
ThyssenKrupp offers workers amnesty to
resolve corruption case, Wall Street Journal
Journal,
www.wsj.com, April 16.
J. Ewing, 2012, Embattled German steel
maker reports a huge loss, New York Times,
www.nytimes.com, December 11.
F. Briscoe, M. K. Chin, & D. C. Hambrick,
2014, CEO ideology as an element of the
corporate opportunity structure for social
activists, Academy of Management Journal
Journal,
57: 1786–1809.
J. P. Doe & N. R. Quigley, 2014, Responsible
leadership and stakeholder management:
Influence pathways and organizational
outcomes, Academy of Management
Perspectives, 28: 255–274.
X. Zhang, N. Li, J Ulrich, & R. von Dick,
2015, Getting everyone on board: The
effect of differentiated transformational
leadership by CEOs on top management
team effectiveness and leader-rated firm
performance, Journal of Management
Management,
in press; J. C. Ryan & S. A. A. Tipu, 2013,
Leadership effects on innovation
propensity: A two-factor full range of
leadership model, Journal of Business
Research, 66: 2116–2129; A. E. Colbert,
A. L. Kristof-Brown, B. H. Bradley, &
M. R. Barrick, 2008, CEO transformational
leadership: The role of goal importance
congruence in top management teams,
Academy of Management Journal
Journal, 51: 81–96.
H. S. Givray, 2007, When CEOs aren’t leaders,
BusinessWeek, September 3, 102.
BusinessWeek
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
Y. Dong, M.-G. Seo, & K. Bartol, 2014, No
pain, no gain: An affect-based model of
developmental job experience and the
buffering effects of emotional intelligence,
Academy of Management Journal
Journal, 57:
1056–1077; D. Goleman, 2004, What makes
a leader? Harvard Business Review
Review, 82(1):
82–91.
C. M. Leitch, C. McMullan, & R. T. Harrison,
2013, The development of entrepreneurial
leadership: The role of human, social
and institutional capital, British Journal
of Management
Management, 24: 347–366; Y. Ling,
Z. Simsek, M. H. Lubatkin, & J. F. Veiga,
2008, Transformational leadership’s role in
promoting corporate entrepreneurship:
Examining the CEO-TMT interface,
Academy of Management Journal
Journal, 51:
557–576.
T. Hutzschenreuter & I. Kleindienst, 2013,
(How) does discretion change over time?
A contribution toward a dynamic view
of managerial discretion, Scandinavian
Journal of Management
Management, 29: 264–281;
T. L. Waldron, S. D. Graffin, J. F. Porac, &
J. B. Wade, 2013, Third-party endorsements
of CEO quality, managerial discretion, and
stakeholder reactions, Journal of Business
Research, 66: 2592–2599.
B. E. Lewis, J. L. Walls, & G. W. S. Dowell,
2014, Difference in degrees: CEO
characteristics and firm environmental
disclosure, Strategic Management
Journal, 35: 712–722; R. Klingebiel, 2012,
Journal
Options in the implementation plan of
entrepreneurial initiatives: Examining firms’
attainment of flexibility benefit, Strategic
Entrepreneurship Journal
Journal, 6: 307–334;
D. G. Sirmon, J.-L. Arregle, M. A. Hitt, &
J. W. Webb, 2008, The role of family
influence in firms’ strategic responses to
threat of imitation, Entrepreneurship Theory
and Practice, 32: 979–998.
O. R. Mihalache, J. J. P. Jansen, F. A. J. van
den Bosch, & H. W. Volberda, 2014, Top
management team shared leadership
and organizational ambidexterity: A
moderated mediation framework, Strategic
Entrepreneurship Journal
Journal, 8: 128–148.
M. Menz, 2012, Functional top
management team members: A review,
synthesis, and research agenda, Journal
of Management
Management, 38: 45–80; A. M. L. Raes,
U. Glunk, M. G. Heijitjes, & R. A. Roe, 2007,
Top management team and middle
managers, Small Group Research, 38:
360–386.
A. Ganter & A. Hecker, 2014, Configurational
paths to organizational innovation:
Qualitative comparative analyses of
antecedents and contingencies, Journal
of Business Research, 67:1285–1292;
O. R. Mihalach, J. J. P. Jansen,
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
410
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
Part 3: Strategic Actions: Strategy Implementation
F. A. J. Van Den Bosch, & H. W. Volberda,
2012, Offshoring and firm innovation: The
moderating role of top management team
attributes, Strategic Management Journal
Journal,
33: 1480–1498.
K. T. Haynes, M. A. Hitt, & J. T. Campbell,
2015, The dark side of leadership: Toward
a mid-range theory of hubris and greed
in entrepreneurial contexts, Journal of
Management Studies, 52: 479–505; J. Li &
Y. Tang, 2010, CEO hubris and firm risk
taking in China: The moderating role
of managerial discretion, Academy
of Management Journal
Journal, 53: 45–68;
M. L. A. Hayward, V. P. Rindova, &
T. G. Pollock, 2004, Believing one’s own
press: The causes and consequences of
CEO celebrity, Strategic Management
Journal, 25: 637–653.
Journal
A. Y. Ou, A. S Tsui, A. J. Kinicki,
D. A. Waldman, Z. Xiao, & L. J. Song,
2014, Humble chief executive officers’
connections to top management team
integration and middle manager response,
Administrative Science Quarterly
Quarterly, 59:
34–72; P. J. C. Patel & D. Cooper, 2014, The
harder they fall, the faster they rise:
Approach avoidance focus in Narcissistic
CEOs, Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 35:
1528–1540.
A. Carmeli, A. Tishler, & A. C. Edmondson,
2012, CEO relational leadership and
strategic decision quality in top
management teams: The role of team
trust and learning from failure, Strategic
Organization, 10: 31–54; V. Souitaris &
B. M. M. Maestro, 2010, Polychronicity
in top management teams: The impact
on strategic decision processes and
performance in new technology ventures,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 31: 652–678.
D. C. Hambrick, S. E. Humphrey, & A. Gupta,
2015, Structural interdependence, within
top management teams: A key moderator
of upper echelon predictions, Strategic
Management Journal
Journal, 36: 449–461.
O. Levy, S. Taylor, N. A. Boyacigiller,
T. E. Bodner, M. A. Peiperl, & S. Beechler,
2015, Perceived senior leadership
opportunities in MNCs: The effect of
social hierarchy and capital, Journal of
International Business Studies, 46: 285–307.
R. Olie, A. van Iteraon, & Z. Simsek, 2012–13,
When do CEOs versus top management
teams matter in explaining strategic
decision-making processes? Toward an
institutional view of strategic leadership
effects, International Studies of Management
and Organization, 42(4): 86–105; Y. Ling &
F. W. Kellermans, 2010, The effects of family
firm specific sources of TMT diversity: The
moderating role of information exchange
frequency, Journal of Management Studies,
47: 322–344.
R. Klingebiel & A. De Meyer, 2013, Becoming
aware of the unknown: Decision making
during the implementation of a strategic
initiative, Organization Science, 24: 133–153;
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
A. Srivastava, K. M. Bartol, & E. A. Locke,
2006, Empowering leadership in
management teams: Effects on knowledge
sharing, efficacy, and performance,
Academy of Management Journal
Journal, 49:
1239–1251; D. Knight, C. L. Pearce,
K. G. Smith, J. D. Olian, H. P. Sims,
K. A. Smith, & P. Flood, 1999, Top
management team diversity, group
process, and strategic consensus, Strategic
Management Journal
Journal, 20: 446–465.
A. Nadolska & H. G. Barkema, 2014, Good
learners: How top management teams
affect the success and frequency of
acquisitions, Strategic Management Journal
Journal,
35: 1483–1507.
T. Buyl, C. Boone, W. Hendricks, &
P. Matthyssens, 2011, Top management
team functional diversity and firm
performance: The moderating role of CEO
characteristics, Journal of Management
Studies, 48: 151–177; B. J. Olson, S. Parayitam, &
Y. Bao, 2007, Strategic decision making:
The effects of cognitive diversity, conflict,
and trust on decision outcomes, Journal of
Management, 33: 196–222.
Management
S. Finkelstein, D. C. Hambrick, &
A. A. Cannella, Jr., 2008, Strategic Leadership:
Top Executives and Their Effects on
Organizations, NY: Oxford University Press.
A Minichilli, G. Corbetta, & I. C. Macmillan,
2010, Top management teams in familycontrolled companies: ‘Familiness’,
‘faultlines’, and their impact on financial
performance, Journal of Management
Studies, 47: 205–222; J. J. Marcel, 2009, Why
top management team characteristics
matter when employing a chief
operating officer: A strategic contingency
perspective, Strategic Management Journal,
30: 647–658.
T. Buyl, C. Boone, & W. Hendriks, 2014, Top
management team members’ decision
influence and cooperative behavior:
An empirical study in the information
technology industry, British Journal of
Management, 25: 285–304; Z. Simsek,
Management
J. F. Veiga, M. L. Lubatkin, & R. H. Dino, 2005,
Modeling the multilevel determinants
of top management team behavioral
integration, Academy of Management
Journal, 48: 69–84.
Journal
A. A. Cannella, J. H. Park, & H. U. Lee,
2008, Top management team functional
background diversity and firm
performance: Examining the roles of team
member collocation and environmental
uncertainty, Academy of Management
Journal, 51: 768–784.
Journal
J. W. Ridge, F. Aime, & M. A. White, 2015,
When much more of a difference makes
a difference: Social comparison and
tournaments in the CEO’s top team,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 36: 618–636;
A. S. Cui, R. J. Calantone, & D. A. Griffith,
2011, Strategic change and termination
of interfirm partnerships, Strategic
Management Journal
Journal, 32: 402–423.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
P. Herrmann & S. Nadkarni, 2014, Managing
strategic change: The duality of CEO
personality, Strategic Management Journal
Journal,
35: 1318–1342; A. E. Colbert, M. R. Barrick, &
B. H. Bradley, 2014, Personality and
leadership composition in top
management teams: Implications for
organizational effectiveness, Personnel
Psychology, 67: 351–387.
Psychology
C. Shalley, M. A. Hitt, & J. Zhou, 2015,
Integrating creativity, innovation and
entrepreneurship to successfully navigate
in the new competitive landscape, in
C. Shalley, M. A. Hitt, & J. Zhou (eds.)
Handbook of Creativity, Innovation and
Entrepreneurship, NY: Oxford University
Press, pp. 1–14; K. Liu, J. Li, W. Hesterly, &
A. A. Cannella, Jr., 2012, Top management
team tenure and technological inventions
at post-IPO biotechnology firms, Journal of
Business Research, 65: 1349–1356.
J. Tian, J. Haleblian, & N. Rajagopalan, 2011,
The effects of board human and social
capital on investor reactions to new CEO
selection, Strategic Management Journal
Journal,
32: 731–747; Y. Zhang & N. Rajagopalan,
2003, Explaining the new CEO origin: Firm
versus industry antecedents, Academy of
Management Journal
Journal, 46: 327–338.
X. Luo, V. K. Kanuri, & M. Andrews, 2014,
How does CEO tenure matter? The
mediating role of firm-employee and
firm-customer relationships, Strategic
Management Journal
Journal, 35: 492–511.
P. Y. T. Sun & M. H. Anderson, 2012, Civic
capacity: Building on transformational
leadership to explain successful integrative
public leadership, The Leadership Quarterly
Quarterly,
23: 309–323; I. Barreto, 2010, Dynamic
capabilities: A review of the past research
and an agenda for the future, Journal of
Management, 36: 256–280.
Management
D. H. Zhu & G. Chen, 2015, CEO narcissism
and the impact of prior board experience
on firm strategy, Administrative Science
Quarterly, 60: 31–65; M. L. McDonald &
Quarterly
J. D. Westphal, 2010, A little help here?
Board control, CEO identification with the
corporate elite, and strategic help provided
to CEOs at other firms, Academy of
Management Journal
Journal, 53: 343–370; L. Tihanyi,
R. A. Johnson, R. E. Hoskisson, & M. A. Hitt,
2003, Institutional ownership and
international diversification: The effects
of boards of directors and technological
opportunity, Academy of Management
Journal, 46: 195–211.
Journal
K. B. Lewellyn & M. I. Muller-Kahle, 2012,
CEO power and risk taking: Evidence from
the subprime lending industry, Corporate
Governance: An International Review
Review, 20:
289–307; S. Wu, X. Quan, & L. Xu, 2011, CEO
power, disclosure quality and the variability
in firm performance, Nankai Business
Review International
International, 2: 79–97.
J. Joseph, W. Ocasio, & M.-H. McDonnell,
2014, The structural elaboration of
board independence: Executive power,
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
411
Chapter 12: Strategic Leadership
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
institutional logics, and the adoption of
CEO-only board structures in U.S. corporate
governance, Academy of Management
Journal, 57: 1834–1858; S. Kaczmarek,
Journal
S. Kimino, & A. Pye, 2012, Antecedents of
board composition: The role of nomination
committees, Corporate Governance: An
International Review
Review, 20: 474–489.
M. van Essen, P.-J. Engelen, & M. Carney,
2013, Does ‘good’ corporate governance
help in a crisis? The impact of country- and
firm-level governance mechanisms in
the European financial crisis, Corporate
Governance: An International Review
Review, 21:
201–224; M. A. Abebe, A. Angriawan, &
Y. Lui, 2011, CEO power and organizational
turnaround in declining firms: Does
environment play a role? Journal of
Leadership and Organizational Studies, 18:
260–273.
C.-H. Liao & A. W.-H. Hsu, 2013, Common
membership and effective corporate
governance: Evidence from audit and
compensation committees, Corporate
Governance: An International Review
Review, 21:
79–92.
P. Cullinan, P. B. Roush, & X. Zheng, 2012,
CEO/Chair duality in the Sarbanes-Oxley
era; Board independence versus unity
of command, Research on Professional
Responsibility and Ethics in Accounting,
16: 167–183; C. S. Tuggle, D. G. Sirmon,
C. R. Reutzel, & L. Bierman, 2010,
Commanding board of director attention:
Investigating how organizational
performance and CEO duality affect
board members’ attention to monitoring,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 32: 640–657;
J. Coles & W. Hesterly, 2000, Independence
of the chairman and board composition:
Firm choices and shareholder value,
Journal of Management
Management, 26: 195–214.
R. Krause & M. Semadeni, 2013, Apprentice,
departure, and demotion: An examination
of the three types of CEO-board chair
separation, Academy of Management
Journal, 56: 805–826.
Journal
M. van Essen, P.-J. Engelen, & M. Carney,
2013, Does “good” corporate governance
help in a crisis? The impact of country- and
firm-level governance mechanisms in
the European financial crisis, Corporate
Governance: An International Review
Review, 21:
201–224.
R. Krause & M. Semadeni, 2014, Last dance
or second chance? Firm performance, CEO
career horizon, and the separation of board
leadership roles, Strategic Management
Journal, 35: 808–825.
Journal
P. C. Patel & D. Cooper, 2014, Structural
power equality between family and nonfamily TMT members and the performance
of family firms, Academy of Management
Journal, 57: 1624–1649.
Journal
E. Matta & P. W. Beamish, 2008, The
accentuated CEO career horizon problem:
Evidence from international acquisitions,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 29: 683–700;
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
N. Rajagopalan & D. Datta, 1996, CEO
characteristics: Does industry matter?
Academy of Management Journal
Journal, 39:
197–215.
W. Lewis, J. L. Walls, & G. W. S. Dowell, 2014,
Difference in degrees: CEO characteristics
and firm environmental disclosure,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 35: 712–722;
R. A. Johnson, R. E. Hoskisson, & M. A. Hitt,
1993, Board involvement in restructuring: The
effect of board versus managerial controls
and characteristics, Strategic Management
Journal, 14 (Special Issue): 33–50.
Journal
Z. Simsek, 2007, CEO tenure and
organizational performance: An
intervening model, Strategic Management
Journal, 28: 653–662.
Journal
M. A. Fitza, 2014, The use of variance
decomposition in the investigation of CEO
effects: How large must the CEO effect be
to rule out chance? Strategic Management
Journal, 35: 1839–1852; X. Luo, V. K. Kanuri, &
Journal
M. Andrews, 2014, How does CEO tenure
matter? The mediating role of firmemployee and firm-customer relationships,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 35: 492–511.
M. Hernandez, 2012, Toward an
understanding of the psychology of
stewardship, Academy of Management
Review, 37: 172–193.
Review
J. W. Ridge & A. Ingram, 2015, Modesty
in the top management team: Investor
reaction and performance implications,
Journal of Management
Management, in press; K. Boyd,
D. Miller, I. LeBreton-Miller, & B. Scholnick,
2008, Stewardship vs. stagnation: An
empirical comparison of small family
and non-family businesses, Journal of
Management Studies, 51: 51–78; J. H. Davis,
F. D. Schoorman, & L. Donaldson,
1997, Toward a stewardship theory of
management, Academy of Management
Review, 22: 20–47.
Review
M. Menz & C. Scheef, 2014, Chief strategy
officers: Contingency analysis of their
presence in top management teams,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 35: 461–471;
A. Holehonnur & T. Pollock, 2013, Shoot
for the stars? Predicting the recruitment
of prestigious directors at newly public
firms, Academy of Management Journal
Journal,
56: 1396–1419; B. Espedal, O. Kvitastein, &
K. Gronhaug, 2012, When cooperation
is the norm of appropriateness: How
does CEO cooperative behavior affect
organizational performance? British Journal
of Management
Management, 23: 257–271.
X. Zhang, N. Li, J. Ullrich, & R. van Dick,
2015, Getting everyone on board: The
effect of differentiated transformational
leadership by CEOs on top management
team effectiveness and leader-related
firm performance, Journal of Management
Management,
in press; J. G. Messersmith, J.-Y. Lee, J
P. Guthrie, & Y.-Y Ji, 2014, Turnover at the
top: Executive team departures and firm
performance, Organization Science, 25:
776–793.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
C. H. Mooney, M. Semadeni, & I. F. Kesner,
2015, The selection of an interim CEO:
Boundary conditions and the pursuit
of temporary leadership, Journal of
Management, in press; S. D. Graffin,
Management
S. Boivie, & M. A. Carpenter, 2013,
Examining CEO succession and the role of
heuristics in early-stage CEO evaluation,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 34: 383–403.
J. P. Donlon, 2013, 40 best companies
for leaders 2013, Chief Executive, www.
chiefexecutive.net, January 12.
2013, Deloitte, Perspectives on familyowned businesses: Governance and
succession planning, www.deloitte.com,
January.
C. Peterson-Withorn, 2015, new survey
pinpoints what keeps family businesses
going for generations, Forbes, www.forbes.
com, April 23.
2013, Intersearch survey reveals status
of CEO succession plans in companies
around the world, Intersearch, www.
pendlpiswanger.at/images/content/file/
Artikel/CEOsuccession, February.
S. Mobbs & C. G. Raheja, 2012, Internal
managerial promotions: Insider incentives
and CEO succession, Journal of Corporate
Finance, 18: 1337–1353; S. Rajgopal, D. Taylor, &
M. Venkatachalam, 2012, Frictions in the
CEO labor market: The role of talent agents
in CEO compensation, Contemporary
Accounting Research, 29: 119–151.
2015, CEO Statistics, Statistic Brain Research
Institute, www.statisticbrain.com, March 11.
M. Nakauchi & M. F. Wiersema, 2015,
Executive succession and strategic change,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 36: 298–306;
M. Elson & C. K. Ferrere, 2012, When searching
for a CEO, there’s no place like home, Wall
Street Journal
Journal, www.wsj.com, October 29.
W. Li & J. Lu, 2014, Board independence,
CEO succession and the scope of
strategic change, Nankai Business Review
International, 5: 309–325.
International
J. J. Marcel, A. P. Cowen, & G. A. Ballinger,
2015, Are disruptive CEO successions
viewed as a governance lapse?
Evidence from board turnover, Journal
of Management
Management, in press; Y. Zhang &
N. Rajagopalan, 2010, Once an outsider,
always an outsider? CEO origin, strategic
change and firm performance, Strategic
Management Journal
Journal, 31: 334–346.
V. Mehrotra, R. Morck, J. Shim, &
Y. Wiwattanakantang, 2013, Adoptive
expectations: Rising sons in Japanese
family firms, Journal of Financial Economics,
108: 840–854; G. A. Ballinger & J. J. Marcel,
2010, The use of an interim CEO during
succession episodes and firm performance,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 31: 262–283.
S. Pandey & S. Rhee, 2015, An inductive
study of foreign CEOs of Japanese firms,
Journal of Leadership and Organizational
Studies, 22: 202–216.
J. A. Krug, P. Wright, & M. J. Kroll, 2014, Top
management turnover following mergers
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
412
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
Part 3: Strategic Actions: Strategy Implementation
and acquisitions; Solid research to date
but still much to be learned, Academy of
Management Journal
Journal, 28: 147–163.
T. Buyl, C. Boone, & J. B. Wade, 2015, nonCEO executive mobility: The impact of
poor firm performance and TMT attention,
European Management Review
Review, in press.
J. Baer, 2015, Google hires Morgan Stanley’s
Porat as finance chief, Wall Street Journal
Journal,
www.wsj.com, March 24; C. Dougherty,
2015, Google CFO is retiring to spend more
time with family (No, really), New York
Times, bits.blogs.nytimes.com, March 10.
D. H. Weng & Z. Lin, 2014, Beyond CEO
tenure: The effect of CEO newness on
strategic changes, Journal of Management
Management,
40: 2009–2032; T. Hutzschenreuter,
I. Kleindienst, & C. Greger, 2012, How new
leaders affect strategic change following
a succession event: A critical review of
the literature, The Leadership Quarterly
Quarterly, 23:
729–755; J. Kotter, 2012, Accelerate! Harvard
Business Review
Review, 90(11): 45–58.
F. F. Jing, G. C. Avery, & H. Bergsteiner,
2014, Enhancing performance in small
professional firms through vision
communication and sharing, Asia Pacific
Journal of Management
Management, 31: 599–620;
L. Mirabeau & S. Maguire, 2014, From
autonomous strategic behavior to
emergent strategy, Strategic Management
Journal, 35: 1202–1229; G. A. Shinkle,
Journal
A. P. Kriauciunas, & G. Hundley, 2013, Why
pure strategies may be wrong for transition
economy firms, Strategic Management
Journal, 34: 1244–1254.
Journal
Herrmann & Nadkarni, 2014, Managing
strategic change; T. Barnett, R. G. Long, &
L. E. Marler, 2012, Vision and exchange
in intra-family succession: Effects on
procedural justice climate among
nonfamily managers, Entrepreneurship
Theory and Practice, 36: 1207–1225.
S. Mantere, H. A. Schildt, & J. A. A. Sillince,
2012, Reversal of strategic change, Academy
of Management Journal
Journal, 55: 172–196;
S. Sonenshein, 2012, Explaining employee
engagement with strategic change
implementation: A meaning-making
approach, Organization Science, 23: 1–23.
P. Chaigneau, 2013, Explaining the structure
of CEO incentive pay with decreasing
relative risk aversion, Journal of Economics
and Business, 67: 4–23; G. Chen &
D. C. Hambrick, 2012, CEO replacement
in turnaround situations: Executive (mis)
fit and its performance implications,
Organization Science, 23: 225–243;
P. L. McClelland, X. Ling, & V. L. Barker,
2010, CEO commitment to the status quo:
Replication and extension using content
analysis, Journal of Management
Management, 36:
1251–1277.
S. Nankarni & J. Chen, 2014, Bridging
yesterday, today and tomorrow: CEO
temporal focus, environmental dynamism
and rate of new product introduction,
Academy of Management Journal
Journal, 57:
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
1810–1833; J. R. Mitchell, D. A. Shepherd,
& M. P. Sharfman, 2011, Erratic strategic
decisions: When and why managers are
inconsistent in strategic decision making,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 32: 683–704.
R. Mudambi & T. Swift, 2014, Knowing
when to leap: Transitioning between
exploitative and explorative R&D, Strategic
Management Journal
Journal, 35: 126–145; J. Wowak
& D. C. Hambrick, 2010, A model of
person-pay interaction: How executives
vary in their response to compensation
arrangements, Strategic Management
Journal, 31: 803–821.
Journal
G. A. Shinkle & B. T. McCann, 2014, New
product deployment: The moderating
influence of economic institutional context,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 35: 1090–1101;
P. M. Wilderom, P. T. van den Berg, &
U. J. Wiersma, 2012, A longitudinal study of
the effects of charismatic leadership and
organizational culture on objective and
perceived corporate performance,
The Leadership Quarterly
Quarterly, 23: 835–848.
M.-J. Chen & D. Miller, 2012, West meets
east: Toward an ambicultural approach to
management, Academy of Management
Perspectives, 24: 17–24; M.-J. Chen & D. Miller,
2011, The relational perspective as a
business mindset: Managerial implications
for East and West, Academy of Management
Perspectives, 25: 6–18.
U. Stettner & D. Lavie, 2014, Ambidexterity
under scrutiny: Exploration and
exploitation via internal organization,
alliances and acquisitions, Strategic
Management Journal
Journal, 35: 1903–1925;
M. Y. C. Chen, C. Y. Y. Lin, H.-E. Lin, &
E. F. McDonough, III, 2012, Does
transformational leadership facilitate
technological innovation? The moderating
roles of innovative culture and incentive
compensation, Asia Pacific Journal of
Management, 29: 239–264.
Management
A. Gambardella, C. Panico, & G. Valentini,
2015, Strategic incentives to human
capital, Strategic Management Journal, 36:
37–52; M. D. Huesch, 2013, Are there always
synergies between productive resources
and resource deployment capabilities?
Strategic Management Journal, 34:
1288–1313; J. Kraaijenbrink, J.-C. Spender, &
A. J. Groen, 2010, The resource-based
view: A review and assessment of its
critiques, Journal of Management, 36:
349–372.
S. D. Julian & J. C. Ofori-dankwa,
2013, Financial resource availability
and corporate social responsibility
expenditures in a sub-Saharan economy:
The institutional difference hypothesis,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 34:
1314–1330; T. Vanacker, V. Collewaert, &
I. Pacleman, 2013, The relationship between
slack resources and the performance of
entrepreneurial firms: The role of venture
capital and angel investors, Journal of
Management Studies, 50: 1070–1096.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
Y. Li, H. Chen, Y. Liu, & M. W. Peng, 2014,
Managerial ties, organizational learning,
and opportunity capture: A social
capital perspective, Asia Pacific Journal
of Management
Management, 31: 271–291; E. A. Clinton,
S. Sciascia, R. Yadav, & F. Roche, 2013,
Resource acquisition in family firms: The
role of family-influenced human and social
capital, Entrepreneurship Research Journal
Journal,
3: 44–61; H. A. Ndofor, D. G. Sirmon, & X. He,
2011, Firm resources, competitive actions
and performance: Investigating a mediated
model with evidence from the in-vitro
diagnostics industry, Strategic Management
Journal, 32: 640–657.
Journal
A. Carr, 2013, Death to core competency:
Lessons from Nike, Apple, Netflix, Fast
Company, www.fastcompany.com,
Company
February 14.
P. M. Wright, R. Coff, & T. P. Moliterno, 2014,
Strategic human capital: Crossing the great
divide, Journal of Management
Management, 40: 353–370;
R. E. Ployhart, C. H. Van Idderkinge, &
W. J. MacKenzie, 2011, Acquiring and
developing human capital in service
contexts: The interconnectedness of
human capital resources, Academy of
Management Journal
Journal, 54: 353–368.
M. A. Hitt, L. Bierman, K. Uhlenbruck, &
K. Shimizu, 2006, The importance of
resources in the internationalization of
professional service firms: The good, the
bad and the ugly, Academy of Management
Journal, 49: 1137–1157; M. A. Hitt, L. Bierman,
K. Shimizu, & R. Kochhar, 2001, Direct and
moderating effects of human capital on
strategy and performance in professional
service firms: A resource-based
perspective, Academy of Management
Journal, 44: 13–28.
A. Mackey, J. C. Molloy, & S. S. Morris, 2014,
Scarce human capital in managerial labor
markets, Journal of Management
Management, 40: 399–
421; H. Aquinis, H. Joo, & R. K. Gottfredson,
2013, What monetary rewards can and
cannot do: How to show employees the
money, Business Horizons, 56: 241–249.
A. Chatterji & A. Patro, 2014, Dynamic
capabilities and managing human capital,
Academy of Management Perspectives, 28:
395–408; R. R. Kehoe & P. M. Wright, 2013,
The impact of high-performance human
resource practices on employees’ attitudes
and behaviors, Journal of Management
Management, 39:
366–391.
Z. J. Zhao & J. Anand, 2013, Beyond
boundary spanners: The ‘collective bridge’
as an efficient interunit structure for
transferring collective knowledge, Strategic
Management Journal
Journal, 34: 1513–1530;
J. Pfeffer, 2010, Building sustainable
organizations: The human factor, Academy
of Management Perspectives, 24(1): 34–45.
K. Z. Zhou & C. B. Li, 2012, How knowledge
affects radical innovation: Knowledge
base, market knowledge acquisition, and
internal knowledge sharing, Strategic
Management Journal
Journal, 33: 1090–1102.
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
413
Chapter 12: Strategic Leadership
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
J. R. Lecuona & M. Reitzig, 2014, Knowledge
worth having in ‘excess’: The value of tacit
and firm-specific human resource slack,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 35: 954–973;
T. R. Holcomb, R. D. Ireland, R. M. Holmes, &
M. A. Hitt, 2009, Architecture of
entrepreneurial learning: Exploring the
link among heuristics, knowledge, and
action, Entrepreneurship, Theory & Practice,
33: 173–198.
Y. Zheng, A. S. Miner, & G. George, 2013,
Does the learning value of individual
failure experience depend on grouplevel success? Insights from a university
technology transfer office, Industrial and
Corporate Change, 22: 1557–1586; R. Hirak,
A. C. Peng, A. Carmeli, & J. M. Schaubroeck,
2012, Linking leader inclusiveness to work
unit performance: The importance of
psychological safety and learning from
failure, The Leadership Quarterly
Quarterly, 23: 107–117.
Hitt, Miller, & Colella, Organizational
Behavior.
A. Cook & C. Glass, 2014, Above the glass
ceiling: When are women and racial/ethnic
minorities promoted to CEO? Academy of
Management Journal
Journal, 35: 1080–1089.
R. Hoskisson, W. Shi, H. Yi, & J. Jin, 2013,
The evolution and strategic positioning
of private equity firms, Academy of
Management Perspectives, 27: 22–38;
P. M. Norman, F. C. Butler, & A. L. Ranft, 2013,
Resources matter: Examining the effects of
resources on the state of firms following
downsizing, Journal of Management
Management, 39:
2009–2038; R. D. Nixon, M. A. Hitt, H. Lee, &
E. Jeong, 2004, Market reactions to
corporate announcements of downsizing
actions and implementation strategies,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 25: 1121–1129.
R. J. Bies, 2013, The delivery of bad news
in organizations: A framework for analysis,
Journal of Management
Management, 39: 136–162;
B. C. Holtz, 2013, Trust primacy: A model of
the reciprocal relations between trust and
perceived justice, Journal of Management
Management,
39: 1891–1923.
C. Galunic, G. Krtug, & M. Gargiulo, 2012,
The positive externalities of social capital:
Benefiting from senior brokers, Academy
of Management Journal
Journal, 55: 1213–1231;
P. S. Adler & S. W. Kwon, 2002, Social capital:
Prospects for a new concept, Academy of
Management Review
Review, 27: 17–40.
M. Ahearne, S. K. Lam, & F. Krause, 2014,
Performance impact of middle managers’
adaptive strategy implementation: The
role of social capital, Strategic Management
Journal, 35: 68–87; Y.-Y. Chang, Y. Gong, &
Journal
M. W. Peng, 2012, Expatriate knowledge
transfer, subsidiary absorptive capacity,
and subsidiary performance, Academy of
Management Journal
Journal, 55: 927–948; S. Gao,
K. Xu, & J. Yang, 2008, Managerial ties,
Absorptive capacity & innovation, Asia
Pacific Journal of Management
Management, 25: 395–412.
K. H. Heimeriks, M. Schijven, & S. Gates,
2012, Manifestations of higher-order
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
routines: The underlying mechanisms
of deliberate learning in the context of
postacquisition integration, Academy
of Management Journal
Journal, 55: 703–726;
P. Ozcan & K. M. Eisenhardt, 2009, Origin of
alliance portfolios: Entrepreneurs, network
strategies, and firm performance, Academy
of Management Journal
Journal, 52: 246–279;
W. H. Hoffmann, 2007, Strategies for
managing a portfolio of alliances, Strategic
Management Journal
Journal, 28: 827–856.
A. M. Kleinbaum & T. E. Stuart, 2014, Inside
the black box of the corporate staff: Social
networks and the implementation of
corporate strategy, Strategic Management
Journal, 35: 24–47.
Journal
D. K. Panda, 2014, Managerial networks
and strategic orientation in SMEs:
Experience from a transition economy,
Journal of Strategy and Management
Management, 7:
376–397; B. J. Hallen & K. M. Eisenhardt,
2012, Catalyzing strategies and efficient
tie formation: How entrepreneurial
firms obtain investment ties, Academy of
Management Journal
Journal, 55: 35–70.
A. Klein, 2011, Corporate culture: Its value
as a resource for competitive advantage,
Journal of Business Strategy
Strategy, 32(2): 21–28;
J. B. Barney, 1986, Organizational culture:
Can it be a source of sustained competitive
advantage? Academy of Management
Review, 11: 656–665.
Review
B. Schneider, M. G. Ehrhart, & W. H. Macey,
2013, Organizational climate and culture,
Annual Review of Psychology
Psychology, 64: 361–388;
E. F. Goldman & A. Casey, 2010, Building a
culture that encourages strategic thinking,
Journal of Leadership and Organizational
Studies, 17: 119–128.
C. B. Dobni, M. Klassen, & W. T. Nelson,
2015, Innovation strategy in the US: Top
executives offer their views, Journal of
Business Strategy
Strategy, 36(1): 3–13; P. G. Klein,
J. T. Mahoney, A. M. McGahan, &
C. N. Pitelis, 2013, Capabilities and strategic
entrepreneurship in public organizations,
Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal
Journal, 7: 70–91;
R. D. Ireland, J. G. Covin, & D. F. Kuratko,
2009, Conceptualizing corporate
entrepreneurship strategy, Entrepreneurship
Theory and Practice, 33: 19–46.
M. S. Wood, A. McKelvie, & J. M. Haynie,
2014, Making it personal: Opportunity
individuation and the shaping of
opportunity beliefs, Journal of Business
Venturing, 29: 252–272; R. D. Ireland
& J. W. Webb, 2007, Strategic
entrepreneurship: Creating competitive
advantage through streams of innovation,
Business Horizons, 50: 49–59.
P. L. Schultz, A. Marin, & K. B. Boal, 2014, The
impact of media on the legitimacy of new
market categories: The case of broadband
internet, Journal of Business Venturing,
29: 34–54; S. A. Alvarez & J. B. Barney,
2008, Opportunities, organizations
and entrepreneurship, Strategic
Entrepreneurship Journal
Journal, 2: 171–174.
113.
Y. Tang, J. Li, & H. Yang, 2015, What I see,
what I do: How executive hubris affects
firm innovation, Journal of Management
Management,
in press; R. E. Hoskisson, M. A. Hitt,
R. D. Ireland, & J. S. Harrison, 2013,
Competing for Advantage, 3rd ed., Mason,
OH: Thomson Publishing.
114. G. Cao, Z. Simsek, & J. J. P. Jansen, 2105,
CEO social capital and entrepreneurial
orientation of the firm: Bonding and
bridging effects, Journal of Management
Management,
in press; T. W. Tong & S. Li, 2013, The
assignment of call option rights between
partners in international joint ventures,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 34:
1232–1243.
115. C. Bjornskov & N. Foss, 2013, How
strategic entrepreneurship and the
institutional context drive economic
growth, Strategic Entrepreneurship
Journal, 7: 50–69; M. A. Hitt, R. D. Ireland,
Journal
D. G. Sirmon, & C. A. Trahms, 2011, Strategic
entrepreneurship: Creating value for
individuals, organizations and society,
Academy of Management Perspectives,
25: 57–75; P. G. Kein, 2008, Opportunity
discovery, entrepreneurial action
and economic organization, Strategic
Entrepreneurship Journal
Journal, 2: 175–190.
116. A. Engelen, C. Neumann, & S. Schmidt,
2015, Should entrepreneurially oriented
firms have narcissistic CEOs? Journal of
Management, in press; G. T. Lumpkin &
Management
G. G. Dess, 1996, Clarifying the
entrepreneurial orientation construct and
linking it to performance, Academy of
Management Review
Review, 21: 135–172.
117. Lumpkin & Dess, Clarifying the
entrepreneurial orientation construct, 142.
118. Ibid., 137.
119. C. L. Wang & M. Rafiq, 2014, Ambidextrous
organizational culture, contextual
ambidexterity and new product
innovation: A comparative study of
UK and Chinese high-tech firms, British
Journal of Management
Management, 25: 58–76; P. Pyoria,
2007, Informal organizational culture:
The foundation of knowledge workers’
performance, Journal of Knowledge
Management, 11: 16–30.
Management
120. C. Kane & J. Cunningham, 2014, Turnaround
leadership core tensions during the
company turnaround process, European
Management Review
Review, 32: 968–980;
W. Langvardt, 2012, Ethical leadership
and the dual roles of examples, Business
Horizons, 55: 373–384.
121. M. N. Kastanakis & B. G. Voyer, 2014, The
effect of culture on perception and
cognition: A conceptual framework,
Journal of Business Research, 67: 425–433;
J. Kotter, 2011, Corporate culture: Whose
job is it? Forbes, http://blog.forbes.com/
johnkotter, February 17.
122. M. I. Garces & P. Morcillo, 2012, The role
of organizational culture in the resourcebased view: An empirical study of the
Spanish nuclear industry, International
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
414
Part 3: Strategic Actions: Strategy Implementation
Journal of Strategic Change Management
Management,
4: 356–378; E. Mollick, 2012, People and
process, suits and innovators: the role of
individuals in firm performance, Strategic
Management Journal
Journal, 33: 1001–1015.
123. W. McKinley, S. Latham, & M. Braun, 2014,
Organizational decline and innovation:
Turnarounds and downward spirals,
Academy of Management Review
Review, 39:
88–110; R. Fehr & M. J. Gelfand, 2012, The
forgiving organization: A multilevel
model of forgiveness at work, Academy
of Management Review
Review, 37: 664–688;
E. G. Love & M. Kraatz, 2009, Character,
conformity, or the bottom line? How
and why downsizing affected corporate
reputation, Academy of Management
Journal, 52: 314–335.
Journal
124. Adler & Kwon, Social capital.
125. J. L. Campbell & A. S. Goritz, 2014,
Culture corrupts! A qualitative study
of organizational culture in corrupt
organizations, Journal of Business Ethics,
120: 291–311; J. Pinto, C. R. Leana, &
F. K. Pil, 2008, Corrupt organizations or
organizations of corrupt individuals? Two
types of organization-level corruption,
Academy of Management Review
Review, 33:
685–709.
126. A. Arnaud & M. Schminke, 2012, The ethical
climate and context of organizations:
A comprehensive model, Organization
Science, 23: 1767–1780; M. E. Scheitzer,
L. Ordonez, & M. Hoegl, 2004, Goal setting
as a motivator of unethical behavior,
Academy of Management Journal
Journal, 47:
422–432.
127. J. A. Pearce, 2013, Using social identity
theory to predict managers’ emphases on
ethical and legal values in judging business
issues, Journal of Business Ethics, 112:
497–514; M. Zhao, 2013, Beyond cops and
robbers: The contextual challenge driving
the multinational corporation public crisis
in China and Russia, Business Horizons, 56:
491–501.
128. H. A. Ndofor, C. Wesley, & R. L. Priem, 2015,
Providing CEOs with opportunities to
cheat: The effects of complexity based
information asymmetries on financial
reporting fraud, Journal of Management
Management,
in press; I. Okhmaztovksiy & R. J. David,
2012, Setting your own standards: Internal
corporate governance codes as a response
to institutional pressure, Organization
Science, 23: 155–176; X. Zhang, K. M. Bartol,
K. G. Smith, M. D. Pfaffer, & D. M. Khanin,
2008, CEOs on the edge: Earnings
manipulation and stock-based incentive
misalignment, Academy of Management
Journal, 51: 241–258.
Journal
129. K. T. Haynes, J. T. Campbell, & M. A. Hitt,
2015, When more is not enough: Executive
greed and its influence on shareholder
wealth. Journal of Management
Management, in press;
Haynes, Hitt, & Campbell, The Dark Side of
Leadership; P. M. Picone, G. B. Dagnino, &
A. Mina, 2014, The origin of failure:
A multidisciplinary appraisal of the hubris
hypothesis and proposed research agenda,
Academy of Management Perspectives, 28(4):
447–468.
130. K. A, Gangloff, B. L. Connelly, & C. L. Shook,
2015, Of scapegoats and signals: Investor
reactions to CEO succession in the
aftermath of wrongdoing, Journal of
Management, in press; D. Gomulya &
Management
W. Boeker, 2014, How firms respond to
financial restatement: CEO successors
and external reactions, Academy of
Management Journal
Journal, 57: 1759–1785.
131. M. S. Schwartz, 2013, Developing and
sustaining an ethical corporate culture: The
core elements, Business Horizons, 56: 39–50;
J. M. Stevens, H. K. Steensma, D. A. Harrison,
& P. L. Cochran, 2005, Symbolic or
substantive document? Influence of ethics
codes on financial executives’ decisions,
Strategic Management Journal
Journal, 26: 181–195.
132. W. H. Bishop, 2013, The role of ethics in
21st century organizations, Journal of
Business Ethics, 118: 635–637; B. E. Ashforth,
D. A. Gioia, S. L. Robinson, & L. K. Trevino,
2008, Re-viewing organizational corruption,
Academy of Management Review
Review, 33:
670–684.
133. Control (management), 2015, Wikipedia,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/control, May
18; M. D. Shields, F. J. Deng, & Y. Kato, 2000,
The design and effects of control systems:
Tests of direct- and indirect-effects models,
Accounting, Organizations and Society
Society, 25:
185–202.
134. M. Rapoport, 2013, KPMG finds its
safeguards ‘sound and effective,’ Wall Street
Journal, www.wsj.com, June 4.
Journal
135. Balanced scorecard, 2015, Wikipedia, en.
wikipedia.org/wiki/Balanced_scorecard,
May 18; M. Friesl & R. Silberzahn, 2012,
Challenges in establishing global
collaboration: Temporal, strategic and
operational decoupling, Long Range
Planning, 45: 160–181; R. S. Kaplan &
D. P. Norton, 2009, The balanced scorecard:
Measures that drive performance (HBR
OnPoint Enhanced Edition), Harvard
Business Review
Review, March.
136. B. E. Becker, M. A. Huselid, & D. Ulrich, 2001,
The HR Scorecard: Linking People, Strategy,
and Performance, Boston, MA: Harvard
Business School Press, 21.
137. K. T. Haynes, M. A. Josefy, & M. A. Hitt,
2015, Tipping point: Managers’ selfinterest, greed, and altruism, Journal of
Leadership & Organizational Studies, 22:
265–279; R. S. Kaplan & D. P. Norton, 2001,
Transforming the balanced scorecard from
performance measurement to strategic
management: Part I, Accounting Horizons,
15 (1): 87–104.
138. R. S. Kaplan, 2012, The balanced scorecard:
Comments on balanced scorecard
commentaries, Journal of Accounting
and Organizational Change, 8: 539–545;
R. S. Kaplan & D. P. Norton, 1992, The
balanced scorecard—measures that drive
performance, Harvard Business Review
Review,
70(1): 71–79.
139. A. Danaei & A. Hosseini, 2013, Performance
measurement using balanced scorecard: A
case study of pipe industry, Management
Science Letters, 3: 1433–1438; M. A. Mische,
2001, Strategic Renewal: Becoming a HighPerformance Organization, Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 181.
140. G. Rowe, 2001, Creating wealth in
organizations: The role of strategic
leadership, Academy of Management
Executive, 15: 81–94.
141. J. Xia & S. Li, 2013, The divestiture of
acquired subunits: A resource dependence
approach, Strategic Management Journal
Journal,
34: 131–148; R. E. Hoskisson, R. A. Johnson,
D. Yiu, & W. P. Wan, 2001, Restructuring
strategies of diversified business groups:
Differences associated with country
institutional environments, in M. A. Hitt,
R. E. Freeman, & J. S. Harrison (eds.),
Handbook of Strategic Management
Management, Oxford,
UK: Blackwell Publishers, 433–463.
142. J. Wincent, S. Thorgren, & S. Anokhin,
2013, Managing maturing governmentsupported networks: The shift from
monitoring to embeddedness controls,
British Journal of Management
Management, 24: 480–497.
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
© RomanOkopny/Getty Images
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203

Purchase answer to see full
attachment




Why Choose Us

  • 100% non-plagiarized Papers
  • 24/7 /365 Service Available
  • Affordable Prices
  • Any Paper, Urgency, and Subject
  • Will complete your papers in 6 hours
  • On-time Delivery
  • Money-back and Privacy guarantees
  • Unlimited Amendments upon request
  • Satisfaction guarantee

How it Works

  • Click on the “Place Order” tab at the top menu or “Order Now” icon at the bottom and a new page will appear with an order form to be filled.
  • Fill in your paper’s requirements in the "PAPER DETAILS" section.
  • Fill in your paper’s academic level, deadline, and the required number of pages from the drop-down menus.
  • Click “CREATE ACCOUNT & SIGN IN” to enter your registration details and get an account with us for record-keeping and then, click on “PROCEED TO CHECKOUT” at the bottom of the page.
  • From there, the payment sections will show, follow the guided payment process and your order will be available for our writing team to work on it.