needs and generate profits. For example, establishing chains of low-cost clinics is helping ad-nt’s medicaldress Africa’s health care needs. 46The application of business models such as local entrepreneurship, microfinance, targetedmarketing, and MNE direct investing holds enormous potential for addressing poverty inAfrica. However, critics charge that MNEs do much harm in Africa, such as exploiting localresources, operating sweatshops, and generating pollution. Where do you stand? Can MNEssuccessfully address poverty and other problems in Africa, or do such firms do more harmthan good?CLOSING CASEProwling for Success: The Revival of Jaguar Land RoverTransforming TATA into an emerging market challenger amid the well as resilience. TATA motors continued to invest money in Jaguaropening up of the Indian economy in 1991 and steering it to a Land Rover amid a global downturn in the sales of luxury car brands.$100 billion global company operating in over 80 countries is con-It finally succeeded in transforming the acquisition into a businesssidered to be Ratan Tata’s crowning success. He stepped down inthat generated over $ 5.82 billion in 2012, with profits of over $5332012.million.The TATA group’s growth had come from spending over $20 bil-lion in acquisitions. But it was the $2.3 billion takeover of the UK’sBackground of Jaguar Land Roverloss-making car manufacturer, Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) Group, fromHistorically separate car brands, Jaguar and Land Rover were partFord in 2008 that created history for the group.of Ford’s premier automotive group (PAG) and acquired together byAnalysts had argued that TATA motors overpaid for Jaguar LandTATA motors .Rover in 2008. True enough, JLR needed more cash injection fromJaguar was founded by William Lyons to build motorcycle side-the TATAs and continued to lose money for another 2 years. Salescars in 1922 as Swallow Sidecars. The name Jaguar was createddropped to just under 72,000 units in 2009. The company, already in 1935, to reflect speed, sleekness, and raw power according tosaddled with a $3 billion debt, suffered losses of almost $468 millionJaguar Heritage Trust. A succession of mergers followed until inin 2009, with Jaguar Land Rover contributing to over $100 million1989, the Ford Motor Company acquired Jaguar Cars for $2.5 bil-of this loss.lion. Ford was forced to sell Jaguar Land Rover in 2008 amid contin-Newspaper reports indicated that JLR would need to close atued losses and to concentrate on its core U.S. businessleast one of its plants in the UK. But as we saw in this chapter, chal-Today, Jaguar sells over 55,000 cars across 4 models; the XF, XI,lengers from emerging markets demonstrate an appetite for risk asXK, and the R series. Sixty-six percent of total sales comes from the




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